Turkmenbaijan - Factbook

  • Capital and largest city: Arkhamnamabad
    Official languages: Turkmenbaijani
    Regional languages: Kyrzbek
    Ethnic groups: Turkmenbaijanis (89%), Kyrzbeks (7%), Australians (2%), Others (1%)
    Demonym: Turkmenbaijani

    Governement: Unitary presidential republic
    President: Kadèr Gurbuzyewa
    Chairman of the National Congress: Nikolaj Nikola
    Legislature: National Congress

    Turkestan ASSR - 30 April 1918
    Turkmen SSR - 30 May 1925
    Turkmenistan - 27 October 1991
    Declared independance - 24 July 2001
    Recognized - 1 January 2002

    Population: 7 612 340

    GDP: $35.398 Billion (total), $6.479 (per capita)
    Gini: 39.2
    HDI: 0.673 (medium)
    Currency: Convertible Manat (KMT); 1 TKM = € 0,216
    Inflation: 16%
    Poverty rate: 67,14%
    Timezone: + 1
    Drives on the: Right
    Calling code: + 998
    ISO 3166-code: TZ
    Internet TLD: .TZ

  • Politics of Turkmenbaijan

    After 69 years as part of the Soviet Union (including 67 years as a union republic) and 10 years as a part of Turkmenistan, Turkmenbaijan declared its independence on 24 July 2001.

    Turkmenbaijan is known as one of the most repressive countries of the European Union. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal.

    Since 2001, Turkmenbaijan has known 3 presidents and 2 presidents ad-interim:

    Enver Därwäzä, SDH - Nikola Nikolaj, SDH - Amos Bahman, SDH (ad-interim) - Asuman Baknezarayowa, AIP - Gülan Burhamayew, SDH (ad-interim)

    The politics of Turkmenbaijan take place in the framework of a presidential republic with the president both head of state and head of governement. Under Därwäzä, Turkmenbaijan had a one-party-system; however, in February 2016, the National Congress unanimously passed a resolution adopting a new constitution. The latter resulted in the abolition of the Council and a significant increase in the size of Parliament in September 2016 and also permits the formation of multiple political parties.

    The former Communist Party, now known as the Social Democratic Movement, is the dominant party. The second party, the Party of Industrialists was established in August 2016. Political gatherings are illegal unless government sanctioned. Turkmenbaijan was a one-party state from 2001 to 2016; however, In practice, all parties in parliament operate jointly under the direction of the SDH. There are no true opposition parties in the Turkmenbaijanian parliament.

    In the beginning of 2017 Nikola Nikolaj came under fire for his actions against the Kyrzbek minority living in the North of the country. Several riots breaked out after the ban of the KTP in National Congress. In that same week Nikola Nikolaj resignated followed by his government. The chairman Amos Bahman organised elections for a new National Congress which was held the 20th of march.
    6 parties are represented now in the National Congress, including the SDH which remained the biggest party with 48 seats. In the indirect presidential elections of march 30th 2017 mrs. Asuman Baknezarayowa was elected with 68 votes on 103.

    Since 2007, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge.

    The National Congress of the State Turkmenbaijan

    A 2003 law reduced the power of the Assembly and augmented that of the President. The National Congress can now be legally dissolved by the President, is led by the President, and is no longer able to amend the Constitution.

    The current chairperson is Amos Bahman from March 2, 2013. He succeeded Nobät Mahmadayev.
    Amos Bahman took over the presidential power after the resignation of Nikola Nikolaj in January 2017.

    The National Congress is the legislative branch of Turkmenbaijan. Untill march 2017 it had 125 members.
    This was changed by Amos Bahman in March 2017.

    National Congress 2009-2017
    National Congress 2017-2025

  • Climate

    The Tündqum Desert is one of the driest deserts in the world; some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.47 in). The highest temperature recorded in Arkhamnamabad is 48.0°C (118.4 °F) and Basjrabad, an inland city located on the sides of the Dezor Hills, recorded 51.7 °C (125.1 °F) in July 1983, although this value is unofficial. 50.1 °C (122 °F) is the highest temperature recorded at Dünler National Park, recognized as the highest temperature ever recorded in the whole European Union.

  • Arkhamnamabad

    Arkhamnamabad is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenbaijan in Southern Europe, situated in the Tündqum Desert and touches the Australian border.
    The Tündqum Canal runs through the city, carrying waters from the Dezor Hills from South to North.

    According to estimates of the 2015 Turkmenbaijan census, Arkhamnamabad has a population of 4.160.467.

    After exiting the Soviet Union, the city gained many high-rise residential buildings. Modern construction techniques allows high-rise development (mainly 12-storeys) with relatively good protection against earthquakes. Primarily consisting of residential towers, the first floor is typically given a shopping area and a service department. Many of the buildings are made of white marble. The Arch of Europe was dismantled and re-erected in its original form in the south of the capital. Turkmenbaijan Tower, at a height of 211 meters, is the tallest building in the country.

    Arkhamnamabad is primarily a government and administrative centre. The business centre of Arkhamnamabad is on the Aldin highway. Construction of several ministries and departments, teaching and research and cultural centres is complete. Development of office buildings and public spaces along the avenue continues.

    Other cities:
    Arkhamnamabad: 4.160.467
    Äz Monzor: 234 817
    Mary: 166 575
    Daryaguz: 120 991
    Yylyznamabad: 114 680
    Uçmartý: 89 468
    Basjrabad: 73 000
    Qarashy: 64 299
    Suleymana: 57 832

  • President of the State Turkmenbaijan

    Article 79 of the Constitution of Turkmenbaijan gives the status of head of state to the President of the State Turkmenbaijan. He/she is also considered the guardian of the Constitution and the rights and freedoms of those who claim Turkmenbaijani citizenship or residency. The President is the personification of unification of the State Turkmenbaijan when conducting foreign or internal affairs and shall be the main representative when dealing with other nations or international organizations. The President is also entrusted with the safety, prosperity and stability of the country and acts as an intermediary between the bodies of the national government

    Turkmenbaijan has know three presidents and two presidents ad-interim since the independence of Turkmenistan.

    july 25th 2001- july 23th 2016: Enver Därwäzä (SDH)
    july 24th 2016 - january 2017: Nikolaj Nikola (SDH)
    january 2017 - march 29th 2017: Amos Bahman (SDH) ad-interim
    march 30th 2017 - may 7th 2017: Asuman Baknezarayowa (AIP)
    may 8th 2017 - in office: Gülan Burhamayew (SDH) ad-interim

    The President of the State Turkmenbaijan is the Head of the Turkmenbaijani State and the Supreme Commander of the Turkmenbaijani Armed Forces

    The official style is:

    His/Her Excellency - name of the president -, president of the State Turkmenbaijan (Ekselanslari(a) -X-, prezident(a) Türkmenbaycan Dävläti).

  • Turkmenbaijani nationality Law

    Citizenship is defined in Article 66 of the Turkmenbaijani Constitution of 2001:

    • Everyone bound to the State of Turkmenbaijan through the bond of citizenship is a Turkmenbaijni
    • The child of a Turkmenbaijani father or a Turkmenbaijani mother is a Turkmenbaijani.
    • Citizenship can be acquired under the conditions stipulated by law, and shall be forfeited only in cases determined by law.
    • No Turkmenbaijani shall be deprived of citizenship, unless he commits an act incompatible with loyalty to the motherland.
    • Recourse to the courts in appeal against the decisions and proceedings related to the deprivation of citizenship, shall not be denied.

    Citizen Identity Card of the State Turkmenbaijan


    A foreign national may apply for nationalization if he or she meets all of the following conditions:

    • Reached the age of majority as defined by the laws of his or her own country or those of Turkmenbaijan in the case of statelesspersons,
    • Resided in Turkmenbaijan for an uninterrupted five years prior to filing the application,
    • Intends to settle in Turkmenbaijan and has taken actions that demonstrate this,
    • Is free of any disease that threatens public health,
    • Is of good moral character,
    • Has an adequate command of the Turkmenbaijanian language,
    • Has sufficient income for his or her own livelihood and that of any dependants in Turkmenbaijan,
    • And poses no threat to national security and public order.

    Meeting these conditions does not give a foreign national an absolute right to Turkmenbaijanian citizenship.

    A foreign national who has been married to a Turkmenbaijani citizen for three years and is still married to that partner may apply for naturalization under a different set of conditions:

    • Resides with Turkmenbaijani partner (exceptions granted if Turkmenbaijani partner dies after application is lodged),
    • Avoids acts that would jeopardise the marriage,
    • And poses no threat to national security and public order.

    Following a successful application, the naturalised partner may preserve their Turkmenbaijanian citizenship in the event of the marriage dissolving, so long as both partners entered into the marriage contract in good faith.

  • State structure and division of powers

    The State Turkmenbaijan has 13 "state services". They are responsible for the daily affairs and are at the service to the population. The department heads are appointed by the president with the approval of the national congress. The 13 state services are as followed:

    + State service of internal affairs
    + State service of external affairs
    + State service of national justice
    + State service of education and public formation
    + State service of public healthcare
    + State service of public utility services
    + State service of media, post, telecom and propaganda
    + State service of european policy
    + State service of environment, living and spatial planning
    + State service of culture
    + State service of employment and social assistance
    + State service of national defence

    The State services of "internal affairs" and a jurisdiction of choice fall under the direct leadership of the president.


    A 2003 law reduced the power of the Assembly and augmented that of the President.
    The National Congress can now be legally dissolved by the President, is led by the President, and is no longer able to amend the Constitution.

    The current chairperson is Amos Bahman from March 2, 2013. He succeeded Nobät Mahmadayev.

    The National Congress is the legislative branch of Turkmenbaijan. Untill March 2017 it had 125 members.
    Today the National Congress has the following structure:
    Seats: 103

    • SDH (Social Democratic Movement): 48
      BUP (Citizen's platform): 18
      PSS (Party of Idustrialists of Turkmenbaijan): 15
      KP (Communist party): 13
      KPT (Kyrzbek minority party): 7
      AIP (Party for European integration): 2

    Turkmenbaijan was a de-facto one-party state untill 2017.



    The anthem of the State Turkmenbaijan (Turkmenbaijani: Bitarap Türkmenbaycan Dävläti Gymny) is the national anthem of the State Turkmenbaijan.
    The lyrics were originally written by the first president of Turkmenbaijan, Enver Därwäzä in 2001.

    Great Turkmenbaijan, our flowering land,
    Besides the other sister nations,
    While our banner rises up ,
    Toward the serene future of prosperity.

    The tune of brotherhood is praising the Country,
    Wisely led by the Party.
    The cause of Lenin - a great cause -
    Is implemented by the united people.

    Glory in ages, reborn land!
    May work be for you a great creator!
    And solidarity - this unshaken goal -
    You raise it through deeds for your happiness!

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