The Republic Of Santiago Bay States

  • **Background: **
    Founded by explorer Rosse in the November of 1797, the Santiago Bay States (formerly the Espanol Colonies) was formed into 3 divisions under Spanish rule. The administrative colonies of Buenos Nova, Rosse, and Armada were formed in Janaurary 1798 into 3 geogrpahical entities, the Northeast (Armada) the South (Rosse) and the Midwest (Buenos Nova) Settlers quickly expanded inland, capitilising on the lands natural resources of fresh water and an expansive timber industry by the early 1800's. By 1823, there were a number of operating railways and ports in the Espanol Colonies, reliant on a thriving timber logging and manufacturing industry. At this time, timber exports was the largest contributor to the colonies gross national product. In 1854, independance was claimed in the world's first mutually agreed partition, and the Santiago Bay States was founded. The constitution was written in 1855, acknowledging full recgognition of the R.S.B.S as an independant country. The 3 colonies remained still at this time, but in a series of divisions by the Third Governor Raul Alonso (1878-1891) saw the nation split into 21 states. The early 1900's brought a hard-hitting economic depression to the R.S.B.S as a result of the First World War, when the demand of the timber industry was drastically reduced. Despite a long recovery from economic hardship, it wasn't until 1924 that manufacturing took over as its number one industry. In 1927, the R.S.B.S made a constitutional amendment, known as the Environmental Protection Act, which acknowledged the preservation of the forests in R.S.B.S and timber industries were outlawed. During the Second World War, the New World Order Party took office, but were successfully overthrown by civilian resistance after just 3 weeks in office. The conclusion of the Second World War, with the formation of the United Nations saw the R.S.B.S sign up as a UN Member. During the 1970's, drug crime plagued the nation as the peacetime movement escalated beyond control.

    Today, The Republic of Santiago Bay States is a small, environmentally stunning nation, remarkable for its burgeoning Polar Bear population (The nations national animal, and protected species for conservation). It has a hard-nosed, intelligent population of 8 million, that enjoy extensive civil rights and enjoy a level of social equality free from the usual accompanying government corruption.

    The government juggles the competing demands of Education, Healthcare, and Social Equality. The average income tax rate is 15%, but much higher for the wealthy. A large private sector is dominated by the Retail industry.

    Tourists from around the world come to visit the country's famous forests, political parties are banned from advertising and receiving private donations, all tariffs have been abolished, and the death penalty has been reintroduced. Crime is moderate, and the police force struggles against a lack of funding and a high mortality rate. Santiago Bay States's national animal is the Polar Bear, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests, and its currency is the Leon.

    **Geography **
    Location: European Union, bordering the neighboring countries of _edit_ and _edit_
    Map references: Scandinavia
    Area total: 359,762 sq km
    Area - comparative: About the same size as Germany.
    Land boundaries: total: _edit_
    border countries: _edit_
    Coastline: 1,982km
    Maritime claims: 12 nm
    Climate: Sub-artic in the North, with a cool climate in the south, Winters bring snowfall and rain, whilst summers are often cloudless, dry but moderate temperature (17-23C) Temperate climate in offlying islands, and mountainous regions are suspectible to instant cold snaps.
    Terrain: Mountainous extremities to the west coast, consistent landscape of rolling hills, with rivers and lakes abundant. A large bay formed in its south central edge, with accompanying cliffs.
    Elevation extremes: Sambuca Valley -12m, Dantes Peak 5,402m
    Natural resources: Fresh water, timber, silver, coal, iron ore.
    Natural hazards: Flooding, tidal surges, blizzards
    Environment - current issues:
    Soil degradation in former timber milling areas, water contamination to some freshwater sources.
    Environment - international agreements: Kyoto Protocol

    **People **
    Population: 8,212,638 (July 2007 est.)
    Median age: 31 years (2007 est.)
    Population growth rate:
    2.01% (2007 est.)


    Birth rate:
    31.44 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
    Death rate:
    5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.032 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.026 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.891 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.024 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 47.04 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 52.73 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 69.31 years
    male: 68.04 years
    female: 70.65 years (2007 est.)
    Total fertility rate:
    4.07 children born/woman (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    less than 500 (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    noun: Iraqi(s)
    adjective: Iraqi
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
    Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
    Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 74.1%
    male: 84.1%
    female: 64.2% (2000 est.)
    Government Iraq Top of Page
    Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
    conventional short form: Iraq
    local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
    local short form: Al Iraq
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Baghdad
    geographic coordinates: 33 21 N, 44 25 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 April; ends 1 October
    Administrative divisions:
    18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
    3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
    National holiday:
    Revolution Day, 17 July (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime; the Government of Iraq has yet to declare a new national holiday
    ratified on 15 October 2005 (subject to review by the Constitutional Review Committee and a possible public referendum in 2007)
    Legal system:
    based on European civil and Islamic law under the framework outlined in the Iraqi Constitution
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 April 2005); Vice Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI and Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 April 2006); note - the president and vice presidents comprise the Presidency Council)
    head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 May 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH and Salam al-ZUBAI (since 20 May 2006)
    cabinet: 37 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI, and Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH and Salam al-ZUBAI
    elections: held 15 December 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives
    Legislative branch:
    bicameral Council of Representatives (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional representation system) and a Federation Council (membership not established and authorities undefined)
    elections: held 15 December 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives; the Council of Representatives elected the Presidency Council and approved the Prime Minister
    election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Unified Iraqi Alliance 41%, Kurdistan Alliance 22%, Tawafuq Coalition 15%, Iraqi National List 8%, Iraqi Front for National Dialogue 4%, other 10%; number of seats by party - Unified Iraqi Alliance 128, Kurdistan Alliance 53, Tawafuq Coalition 44, Iraqi National List 25, Iraqi Front for National Dialogue 11, other 14
    Judicial branch:
    the Iraq Constitution calls for the Federal Judicial Authority, comprised of the Higher Juridical Council, Supreme Federal Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission and other federal courts that are regulated in accordance with the law
    Political parties and leaders:
    Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Constitutional Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa al-Islamiyya Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; General Conference of Iraqi People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Independent Iraqi Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraqi Communist Party [Hamid al-MUSA]; Iraqi Front for National Dialogue [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraqi Hizballah [Karim Mahmud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraqi Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraqi Islamic Party or IIP [Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Iraqi National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraqi National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraqi National Council for Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraqi National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Kurdistan Islamic Union [Salah ad-Din Muhammad BAHA al-DIN]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR] (not an organized political party, but it fields independent candidates affiliated with Muqtada al-SADR); Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq or SCIRI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]
    note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraqi National List, Tawafuq Coalition, Iraqi Front for National Dialogue, and Unified Iraqi Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraqi political parties
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    an insurgency against the Government of Iraq and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated in Baghdad and in areas north, northeast, and west of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency consists principally of Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence in Iraq; a number of predominantly Shia militias, some associated with political parties, challenge governmental authority in Baghdad and southern Iraq
    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Samir Shakir al-SUMAYDI
    chancery: 1801 P Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER
    embassy: Baghdad
    mailing address: APO AE 09316
    telephone: 00-1-240-553-0584 ext. 5340 or 5635; note - Consular Section
    FAX: NA
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Yemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egypt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
    Economy Iraq Top of Page
    Economy - overview:
    Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program, which began in December 1996, helped improve conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In December 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. The military victory of the US-led coalition in March-April 2003 resulted in the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure. Although a comparatively small amount of capital plant was damaged during the hostilities, looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined efforts to rebuild the economy. Attacks on key economic facilities - especially oil pipelines and infrastructure - have prevented Iraq from reaching projected export volumes, but total government revenues have been higher than anticipated due to high oil prices. Despite political uncertainty, Iraq is making some progress in building the institutions needed to implement economic policy and has negotiated a debt reduction agreement with the Paris Club and a Standby Arrangement with the IMF. An International Compact with Iraq is being established to integrate Iraq into the regional and global economy, while recognizing the need to resolve destabilizing security and political conflicts. Additionally, the Iraqi government is seeking to pass laws to strengthen the economy; this legislation includes a hydrocarbon law to encourage contracting with foreign investors and a revenue sharing law to equitably divide oil revenues within the nation. Controlling inflation, reducing corruption, and implementing structural reforms such as bank restructuring and developing the private sector, will be key to Iraq's economic prospects.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $87.9 billion (2006 est.)
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $40.66 billion (2006 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.4% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,900 (2006 est.)
    GDP - composition by sector:
    agriculture: 7.3%
    industry: 66.6%
    services: 26.1% (2004 est.)
    Labor force:
    7.4 million (2004 est.)
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: NA%
    industry: NA%
    services: NA%
    Unemployment rate:
    25% to 30% (2005 est.)
    Population below poverty line:
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    64.8% (2006 est.)
    revenues: $33.4 billion
    expenditures: $41 billion (2006 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
    petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Electricity - production:
    34.6 billion kWh (2006)
    Electricity - consumption:
    33.3 billion kWh (2005)
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2005)
    Electricity - imports:
    2.02 billion kWh (2005)
    Oil - production:
    2.13 million bbl/day; note - prewar production in 2002 was 2.2 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - consumption:
    377,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - exports:
    1.5 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
    Oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2006)
    Oil - proved reserves:
    112.5 billion bbl (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - production:
    1.75 billion cu m (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption:
    1.75 billion cu m (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2006 est.)
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    3.115 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
    Current account balance:
    $8.134 billion (2006 est.)
    $32.19 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
    Exports - commodities:
    crude oil 84%, crude materials excluding fuels 8%, food and live animals 5%
    Exports - partners:
    US 49.7%, Italy 10.4%, Spain 6.3%, Canada 5.6% (2005)
    $20.76 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
    Imports - commodities:
    food, medicine, manufactures
    Imports - partners:
    Turkey 23.4%, Syria 23.1%, US 11.7%, Jordan 6.3% (2005)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $15.65 billion (2006 est.)
    Debt - external:
    $81.48 billion (2006 est.)
    Economic aid - recipient:
    $13.5 billion pledged in foreign aid for 2004-07 from outside of the US, over $33 billion pledged total (2004)
    Currency (code):
    New Iraqi dinar (NID) as of 22 January 2004
    Exchange rates:
    New Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 1,466 (2006), 1,475 (2005), 1,890 (second half, 2003), 0.3109 (2001)
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Communications Iraq Top of Page
    Telephones - main lines in use:
    1.547 million (2005)
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    8.7 million (2006)
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: the aftermath of the liberation of Iraq in 2003 severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; USAID repaired switching capabilities and constructed a mobile and satellite communication facility; landlines now exceed pre-war levels
    domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 have been completed, but sabotage remains a problem; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is widely available in major cities and centered on 3 regional GSM networks, improving country-wide connectivity; there are currently 8.7 million users of cellular services
    international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; despite a new satellite gateway, international calls outside of Baghdad are sometimes problematic (2006)
    Radio broadcast stations:
    after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations (types NA) on the air inside Iraq (2004)
    Television broadcast stations:
    21 (2004)
    Internet country code:
    Internet hosts:
    5 (2006)
    Internet users:
    36,000 (2005)
    Transportation Iraq Top of Page
    110 (2006)
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 77
    over 3,047 m: 20
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 37
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 9 (2006)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 33
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    914 to 1,523 m: 13
    under 914 m: 10 (2006)
    8 (2006)
    gas 2,228 km; liquid petroleum gas 918 km; oil 5,506 km; refined products 1,637 km (2006)
    total: 2,200 km
    standard gauge: 2,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
    total: 45,550 km
    paved: 38,399 km
    unpaved: 7,151 km (1999)
    5,279 km
    note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,899 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2004)
    Merchant marine:
    total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,796 GRT/101,317 DWT
    by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 2 (2006)
    Ports and terminals:
    Al Basrah, Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr
    Military Iraq Top of Page
    Military branches:
    Iraqi Armed Forces: Iraqi Army (includes Iraqi Special Operations Force, Iraqi Intervention Force), Iraqi Navy (former Iraqi Coastal Defense Force), Iraqi Air Force (former Iraqi Army Air Corps) (2005)
    Military service age and obligation:
    all volunteer force; the Iraqi Government is creating a new professional Iraqi military force of men aged 18 to 40 to defend Iraq from external threats and the current insurgency (2006)
    Manpower available for military service:
    males age 18-49: 5,870,640
    females age 18-49: 5,642,073 (2005 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service:
    males age 18-49: 4,930,074
    females age 18-49: 4,771,105 (2005 est.)
    Manpower reaching military service age annually:
    males age 18-49: 198,518
    females age 18-49: 289,879 (2005 est.)
    Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
    8.6% (2006)
    Transnational Issues Iraq Top of Page
    Disputes - international:
    coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring internal and cross-border security; approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq, with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan, and lesser numbers to Egypt, Lebanon, Iran, and Turkey; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds in Iraq
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 15,000 (Palestinian Territories), 11,960 (Iran), 16,110 (Turkey)
    IDPs: 1.9 million (ongoing US-led war and Kurds' subsequent return) (2007)

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