Kingdom Of Luvenburg



  • Kingdom of Luvenburg

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    Luvenburg, officially known as the Kingdom of Luvenburg (French: Royaume du Luvenburg), is a European state. Luvenburg has been a constitutional monarchy with a federal parliamentary representative democracy since 1854. Having existed for almost 630 years, the Luvenburgish monarchy is one of the oldest in the world. The federal capital of Luvenburg is Truva, home of the nation?s Parliament as well as the residence of the king and the official seat of the government. French is the official language of Luvenburg.

    Luvenburg is a developed, technologically advanced, and industrialized nation. The kingdom maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant on manufacturing, trade, tourism, and the banking sector. Luvenburg faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services.



  • HISTORY

    Early History
    Luvenburg derives its name from a Germanic tribe, the Luvgae, whom Julius Caesar described as the most courageous tribe of the North. The Luvgae were forced to yield to Roman legions during the first century B.C.E. (Before the Common Era). The Romans named their new territory Luvicana. For some 300 years thereafter what is now known as Luvenburg flourished as a province of Rome. That said; Rome's power gradually declined.

    In about 300 C.E. (Common Era), Attilor the Merciless invaded and pushed the Germanic tribes more into northern Luvenburg. About 100 years later, the Germanic tribe of the Franks invaded, taking control of the region, including the area known today as Luvenburg. Even though the region of present-day Luvenburg became increasingly Germanized, the people overwhelmingly retained a Romanized culture and spoke derivatives of Latin.

    By 431, an independent dynasty, known by the name "Balvians", was established with its capital at Akenia. In the ensuing decades, under the leadership of Clevim I, the Balvians vanquished the last of the Romans in the Luvicana region. They took control of significant portions of present day Luvenburg and surrounding nations. Clevim I also adopted Christianity, and in so doing, he was able to secure the support of the Church.

    Clevim's death ushered in the decline of the Balvians. The result was the fragmentation of the Luvicana region lands for centuries until 751, when the rule of Josua IV brought some unified rule to the region. Under Josua IV, the Balvians were deposed and promptly replaced by the Cargians.

    The Middle Ages
    Frankish dynasties continued to govern the region and the Middle Ages in Luvenberg were largely influenced by a succession of power struggles between warring factions of these dynasties. Of particular note was the Calian Dynasty, which was associated with a time of prosperity and scholarship. These dynasties lasted until 1369 when, Philippe, Duke of Merovia, committed to unite the region, ushered an era of military campaigns. In 1374, Philippe I was proclaimed king of a unified Luvenburg by the newly conquered dynasties. The following year, Philippe I was crowned by the Pope. His eldest son and successor, Julian I, went on to build the city of Truva as a unifying capital of the newly founded kingdom.

    The Luvenburgish Expansion
    During the Seventeenth Century, Luvenburg became a powerful nation in Europe, due to a policy of extensive development and peaceful existence implemented by successive Merovian monarchs. However, it was Antoine IX who allocated substantial resources to the development a powerful navy to maintain supremacy in Europe. His successor, Albert II, led on to establish the first Luvenburg colony of Kupros. The Luvenburgish Empire greatly stretched and reached its maximum size in the years between 1722 and 1749. The later part of the 18th century witnessed the revolt and independence of most of Luvenburg?s colonies.

    The Luvenburgish Revolution and the First Republic
    The Ten Years' War (1762 -72), an unsuccessful final attempt to maintain the loyalty of the colonies, proved to be financially burdensome for the weakening monarchy. Indeed, the war drove public sentiment and caused the Luvenburgish masses to rally against the privileges of the established order composed of the monarchy and the nobility. As reformists sought to change the regime, the monarchy responded by trying to clamp down on them. In response, Luvenburgish masses took to the streets in protests. On February 6, 1779, a mob of protestors managed to control portions of Truva. The final outcome was the ousting and execution of Sergius V and the proclamation of the First Luvenburgish Republic (1780-82).

    However, the scenario quickly changed as the more nationalist elements rose to power. A period of dictatorial rule (1782-95) under the reign of Cornelius Valton (the Butcher) was characterized by dictatorial control and absolute rule under which persecution and executions became the norm. The rise of Valton?s dictatorship marked the end of the First Republic.

    The Luvenburgish Civil War and the Second Republic
    Dictatorial rule abruptly ended in 1795 with the mysterious and sudden death of Valton and the restoration of the monarchy (1795-1848). Albert IV, pretender of the Luvenburgish throne, ascended to the throne in a political environment dominated by increasing polarization. For the next three decades, the governance in Luvenburg was largely inefficient, marked by the expanding political control of the monarchy. Eventually, however, the respective roles of the military and the church were notably reduced from the government, and the separation of church and state was instituted. The increasing displeasure with the state of affairs encouraged the military to carry out a coup d'?tat. Henri IX was forced to abdicate and was jailed for life. The Second Luvenburgish Republic was proclaimed and the monarchy was abolished.

    Pressures from all sides, coupled with growing and unchecked violence, as well as uprising within the ranks of the military, ultimately led to the outbreak of the Luvenburish Civil War in July 1848. The Luvenburgish Civil War lasted from 1848 through 1852. More than 350,000 were killed in the duration of the war. In 1852, shortly after defeating the leftist forces, Marcus Mavri led the Democrats? forces into Truva and on to victory over the Nationalist government forces.

    The Second ?Glorious? Restoration
    Following the victory of the Democrats, Luvenburg was both politically and economically exhausted. Seeing the monarchy as a potentially unifying force, Mavri welcomed the restoration of a constitutional monarchy. St?phane III ascended to the throne and a newly established assembly set about drafting a democratic constitution that was overwhelmingly approved by voters in a December 1854 plebiscite. The constitution established a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy. In 1855, the first democratic elections were held for the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.



  • GOVERNMENT

    Country name
    conventional long form: The Kingdom of Luvenburg
    conventional short form: Luvenburg
    local long form: Royaume du Luvenburg
    local short form: Luvenburg

    Government type
    constitutional monarchy with a federal parliamentary system of government

    Capital
    name: Truva

    Administrative divisions
    7 provinces and 1 region*; Luvenburgish Capital Region*, Alessandria, Aragua, Baden, Braitus, Matinbourg, Novara, Vercelli

    Major Cities
    Ascalon, Caelia, Truva, Westinbourg

    Independence
    July 12, 1374 (unification of Luvenburg under Philippe, Duke of Merovia)

    National holiday
    Luvenburg Day, July 12

    Constitution
    adopted by referendum December 10, 1854, effective January 15, 1855
    note: established Luvenburg as a constitutional monarchy with a secular parliamentary system of government

    Suffrage
    18 years of age; universal

    Executive branch
    chief of state: ?DOUARD III, King (since February 27, 1986)
    head of government: Prime Minister Selene Clarke (since February 15, 2008)
    cabinet Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch upon recommendation of the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party or coalition
    elections: following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch.
    cabinet members
    Prime Minister: Alexandre VALLIER, Liberal
    Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs: ?lisabeth L?VESQUE, Liberal
    Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries: Jean-Jacques LEGRAND, Liberal
    Minister of Culture: Jacques DUPUIS, Socialist
    Minister of Defense: Jean-Pierre Verne, Socialist
    Minister of Finance: Celie LESAGE, Liberal
    Minister of Education and Science: Claude NORMANDEAU, Liberal
    Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Nathalie M?NARD, Liberal
    Minister of Environmental Affairs: Pierre NECKER, Green
    Minister of Health: Esioff-L?on FAUTEUX, Liberal
    Minister of Housing and Urban Development: Marguerite THIBAULT, Socialist
    Minister of Industry and Commerce: Henri DU PONTE
    Minister of Interior: Henri D?AGUESSEAU, Green
    Minister of Justice: Ren? LETARD, Liberal
    Minister of Labor: Louis-Phillippe P?RODEAU, Socialist
    Minister of Tourism Pierre TH?RIAULT, Liberal
    Minister of Transportation Alain OLLIVIER, Liberal

    List of prime ministers since 1971
    1971-1975 Raymond Poincar?, first ministry (Liberal)
    1975-1978 Raymond Poincar?, second ministry (Liberal)
    1978-1981 Charles Dupuy (Socialist)
    1981-1985 Valus Gistus, first ministry (Liberal)
    1985-1988 Valus Gistus, second ministry (Liberal)
    1988-1992 Fran?oise Arago, first ministry (Conservative)
    1992-1994 Fran?oise Arago, second ministry (Conservative)
    1994-1998 Marcus Levindi (Liberal)
    1998-2001 Anne de Brantis (Liberal)
    2001-2004 Ren? Brisson (Socialist)
    2004-2008 Anthony Trudeau (Conservative)
    2008-2009 Selene Clarke (Liberal)
    2009-present Alexandre Vallier (Liberal)

    Legislative branch
    bicameral Parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies (484 seats - members elected for four-year terms; proportional representation in 1 national bloc) and the Senate (242 seats - members elected for six-year terms; half reelected every three years; proportional representation in 54 regional blocs)
    elections:
    Chamber of Deputies - last held January 25, 2008 (next to be held on January 2012)
    Senate - last held July 16 2006 (next election by July 2009)
    election results:
    Chamber of Deputies - seats by party ? Liberals 155 (32%), Conservatives 121 (25%), Socialists 68 (14%), Greens 58 (12%), National Reform 43 (9%), Republican Alternative 39 (8%)
    Senate ? Conservatives 76 (31%), Liberals 74 (30.5%), Socialists 31 (13%), Greens 29 (12%, National Reform 16 (6.5%), Republican Alternative 15 (6%)
    parliamentary leadership

    • President of the Senate: H?l?ne HOLLANDE, Liberal
    • Majority Leader in the Senate L?onard MATHIEU, Liberal
    • Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies: Royal GALIPEAU, Liberal
    • Majority Leader in the Chamber of Deputies: ?mile ROUSSEAU, Liberal

    Judicial branch

    • Constitutional Court - responsible for judicial review; half the judges are elected by the Chamber of Deputies and half by the Senate for fifteen-year nonrenewable terms. To be elected a two-thirds majority is required.
    • Court of Cassation - court of last resort for ordinary matters; the Council of the Judiciary appoints justices based on competitive examinations
    • Administrative Court - court of last resort for administrative matters; Council of the Judiciary appoints justices based on competitive examinations

    Political parties
    Conservative Party, Communist Party, Green Party, Liberal Party, National Reform Party, Republican Alternative Party, Socialist Party

    Government Agencies

    • Bank of Luvenburg - central bank of Luvenburg
    • Competition Authority - administers and enforces of the antitrust laws
    • ?lections Luvenburg - administers federal and provincial elections
    • Financial Services Authority - regulates of all financial institutions in Luvenburg
    • Luvenburgish International Development Agency - administers international aid and assistance programs
    • Luvenburgish Space Agency - administers the space program
    • National Security Agency - civilian intelligence agency
    • Public Health Authority - administers public health emergency preparedness and response, and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention
    • Postes Luvenburg - postal service, air courier
    • Statistique Luvenburg - produces statistics to better understand society, resources, and the economy

    Representation to the European Council
    Henri DUPORT

    Flag description
    three horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the black band



  • ECONOMY

    Economy Overview
    Luvenburg is a prosperous and stable modern market economy with receding government intervention and a high per capita income. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, banks, and insurers. Luvenburg?s leaders remain committed to a capitalist society in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare. For the past decade, the Luvenburgish economy has been growing rapidly with low unemployment and large government surpluses. In recent years, Luvenburg has brought their economic practices largely into conformity with those of the European Union, in an effort to enhance their international competitiveness.

    The nation?s policy of long-term monetary stability has made Luvenburg a safe haven for investors, creating an economy that is increasingly dependent on a steady tide of foreign investment. Because of the country's small size and high labor specialization, industry and trade are the keys to Luvenburg?s economic livelihood.

    GDP (nominal)
    Ł3.237 trillion (February 27, 2008 est.)

    GDP - real growth rate
    2.8% (2007 est.)

    GDP - per capita (PPP)
    Ł20.674.00 (February 27, 2008 est.)

    GDP - composition by sector
    agriculture: 2.1%
    industry: 29%
    services: 68.9% (2007 est.)

    Labor force
    18.604 million (45.6%) (February 27, 2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation
    agriculture: 2%
    manufacturing: 14%
    construction: 5%
    _services:_752%
    other: 3% (2007 est.)

    Unemployment rate
    9.9% (February 27, 2008 est.)

    Population below poverty line
    6.2% (2006 est.)

    Inflation rate (consumer prices)
    2% (2007 est.)

    Investment (gross fixed)
    22% of GDP (2007 est.)

    Budget
    revenues: Ł1.874 trillion
    expenditures: Ł1.856 trillion (February 27, 2008 est.)

    Agriculture ? products
    wheat, barley, oilseed, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish

    Industries
    Information technology (NS economy); tourism; banking; transportation equipment; automobiles; chemicals; pharmaceuticals; beauty-care products; microelectronics

    Exports
    Ł372.863 trillion (February 27, 2008 est.)

    Exports ? commodities
    motor vehicles and parts; aircrafts; telecommunications equipment; information technology; industrial machinery; chemicals; platinum

    Imports
    Ł400.054 trillion (February 27, 2008 est.)

    Imports ? commodities
    machinery; chemicals; vehicles; metals; agricultural products; textiles

    Major Companies

    • A?rospatiale Syst?mes: aerospace; telecommunications
    • Groupe ALP: broadcasting; journalism; media ? owns Agence Luvenburg Presse
    • Air Luvenburg: airline carrier
    • Banque Nationale de Truva: commercial banking
    • Bourse de Truva: stock exchange
    • Cr?dit Interationale: banking; finance; insurance
    • Concorde-Delon: automotive
    • Daullon: construction
    • ?lectricit? du Luvenburg: power utility
    • Groupe P?troLuvenburg: energy; oil, gas; petrochemicals
    • Roche-Aventis: pharmaceuticals
    • T?l?com Luvenburg: telecommunications, wireless communication
    • Soci?t? de Banque Luvenburgeoise (SBL): banking; finance; insurance
    • V?lstrom: engineering; telecommunication

    Currency (code)
    Luvenburgish livre, Ł, (LUL)

    Fiscal year
    1 April - 31 March



  • DEMOGRAPHICS

    Population
    40,800,000 (February 27, 2008 est.)

    Nationality
    noun: Luvenburgish (collective plural)

    Ethnic groups
    Celtic base (with Frankish and Germanic blend)

    Religions
    unofficial estimates Protestant 75%, Roman Catholic 14%, Jewish 1%, unaffiliated 10%,
    note Luvenburg is a secular state where freedom of thought and religion are guaranteed as a constitutional right, in virtue of the 1854 Constitution of Luvenburg. A complete separation of church and state was enacted under the Luvenburgish Charter of Rights and the government does not keep statistics on religious adherence, ethnicity, or political affiliation.

    Languages
    French 100%

    Social Issues
    Abortion: No legal restrictions imposed, funded under the universal health care system
    Crime and incarceration:

    • Death penalty - abolished in May 1989.
    • Cannabis - possession decriminalized in November 1999
      Gambling: Legalized in 1950, highly regulated by government
      Health Care:
    • Universal health care system - Publicly funded with most services provided by private entities
    • Euthanasia ? Legalized in April 2002, stricken down by Constitutional Court in 2004
      Prostitution:
    • Selling sexual services ? legalized in 1966
    • Purchase of sexual services ? criminalized in 1991, prostitutes are regarded as victims
      Scientific research:
    • Human cloning ? banned in October 2004 with the exception of therapeutic cloning
    • Embryonic stem cell ? legalized in December 2004
      Sexuality:
    • Same-sex marriage ? legalized in December 2000
    • Age of consent ? 16 years, gender-neutral


  • More to come



  • More to come


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