Factbook: The Commonwealth of Leagio
List of Leagioan Presidents and their years as President of the Commonwealth as well as their political orientation
(1st) 1904-1910: Jean Huttson (Independent)
(2nd) 1910-1916: Edward Franciso (Civil Populist)
(3rd) 1916-1919: Silvain Bettencourt (Civil Populist)
(4th) 1919-1925: Teo Chistau (Civil Populist)
(5th) 1925-1928: Oliver Richardson (Conservative Reformist)
(6th) 1928-1934: Hayden Cole (Conservative Reformist)
(7th) 1934-1940: Louie Holland (Social Democrat)
(8th) 1940-1942: Memphis Wilson (Social Democrat) [Assasinated]
(9th) 1942-1946: Leo Holland (Social Democrat)
(10th) 1946-1949:t Abel Perne (Civil Populist)
(11th) 1949-1955: Maxime Gauthier (Civil Populist)
(12th) 1955-1958: Jonathan Valenzuela (Conservative Reformist)
(13th) 1958-1961: Noah Valladares (Socialist) [Assassinated]
(14th) 1961-1967: Abel Ortiz (Pact of Democracy)
(15th) 1967-1970: Orion Macdonald (Progressive)
(16th) 1970-1973: Dylan Fidalgo (Conservative Reformist)
(17th) 1973-1979: Abel Ortiz (Pact of Democracy)
(18th) 1979-1985: Atticus Frank (Civil Populist)
(19th) 1985-1991: Jordyn Fields (Social Democrat)
(20th) 1991-1993: Jude Good (Social Democrat) [Died in Office]
(21st) 1993-1994: Dylan Fidalgo (Conservative Reformist)
(22nd) 1994-2000: Alberto Malillos (Civil Populist)
(23rd) 2000-2006: Frank Laurent (Civil Populist)
(24th) 2006-2009: Phil Sardou (Civil Populist)
(25th) 2009-2015: Abril Ariza (Social Democrat)
(26th) 2015-2021: Kenith Lifejumper (Civil Populist)
(27th) 2021-Present Ran Mouri-Kudo (Progressive)
List of Governor-Generals of the Commonwealth and their years as well as their political orientation.
(1st) 1904-1910: Felix Sule (Independent)
(2nd) 1910-1916: Silvain Bettencourt (Civil Populist)
(3rd) 1916-1922: Richard Vandame (Civil Populist)
(4th) 1922-1928: Hayden Cole (Conservative Reformist)
(5th) 1928-1931: xn--Lionel Mnard-ieb (Progressive)
(6th) 1931-1937: Valerio Vayo (Conservative Reformist)
(7th) 1937-1940: Noah Valladares (Socialist)
(8th) 1940-1942: Leo Holland (Social Democrat)
(9th) 1942-1943: Benjamin Scott (Social Democrat)
(10th) 1943-1949: Orion Macdonald (Progressive)
(11th) 1949-1952: Abel Ortiz (Pact of Democracy)
(12th) 1952-1958: Matias Jacobson (Conservative Reformist)
(13th) 1958-1961: Abel Ortiz (Pact of Democracy)
(14th) 1961-1967: Atticus Frank (Civil Populist)
(15th) 1967-1970: Jude Good (Social Democrat)
(16th) 1970-1972: Fabricio Fontanilla (Conservative Reformist) [Impeached for Bribery and Stealing Public Money)
(17th) 1972-1973: Dany Larousse (Conservative Reformist)
(18th) 1973-1979: Brigitte Astier (Pact of Democracy)
(19th) 1979-1982: Jordyn Fields (Social Democrat)
(20th) 1982-1985: Alberto Malillos (Civil Populist)
(21st) 1985-1988: Patrice Chuquet (Progressive)
(22nd) 1988-1993: Abril Ariza (Social Democrat)
(23rd) 1993-1994: Dylan Fidalgo (Conservative Reformist)
(24th) 1994-2000: Atticus Frank (Civil Populist)
(25th) 2000-2006: Francis Plessis (Civil Populist)
(26th)2006-2009: Isabella Carrol (Socialist)
(27th) 2009-2012: Kenith Lifejumper (Civil Populist)
(28th) 2012-2015: Victor Bellegarde (Conservative Reformist)
(29th) 2015-2018: Rylan Hopper (Conservative Reformist)
(30th) 2018-2021: Mark Gorge (Civil Populist)
Leagioan Line of Succession For the Office of the President of the Commonwealth
The Line of Succession Act, which was passed in 1952 under President Maxime Gauthier, was established as a way to ensure that if the President of the Commonwealth of Leagio was dead, implicated, or removed from office that there would be a person that could be President of the Commonwealth, especially in the worst-case scenario that a large part of the government has been taken out. The Act has been amended many times as the Common Government of Leagio has grown, especially with the move of having Leagio enter into the European Union. This is the current set of the Line of Sucession for the President. Normally in this list, the second person that is alive in the list would become the Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Leagio.
(2nd) Speaker of the House of Councillors
(3rd) Minister of Foreign Affairs
(4th) Minister of Defence
(5th) Minister of the Interior
(6th) Attorney General of the Commonwealth
(7th) Minister of Treasury
(8th) EU Councillor for Leagio
(9th) Minister of Cultural Affairs
(10th) Minister of Education
(11th) Minister of Trade and Industry
(12th) Minister of Health
(13th) Minister of Commerce
(14th) Minister of Digital Technology
(15th) Director of CACT
The creation of the position that is still relevant today called the Governor-General begins back in the old days when Leagio was just a colony. When Leagio was a colony, the colonial government had a legislative assembly that represented the colonists inside the colony. The Governor-General is a position that was appointed by the crown of the mother country. The position of the Governor-General in the colony has the duties of maintaining the interests of the colonists, veto any legislation that was against the interests of the mother country, and ensure that the colony is well protected against any attacks from the Indigenous Karptinezs that occupied the lands previously.
The Governor-General that was around during the War of Independence was Felix Sule, who was strongly against the taxes that the mother country was implementing on the Colony of Leagio. He was removed from his post and the colonial government was replaced with a military government that gave no political freedoms to the people of the colony. As the War of Independence began against the miltiary government and the mother country, Felix Sule became a foreign diplomat for the new provisional government of Leagio.
After the War of Independence where the Constitution of 1904 was drafted, there was a debate on what the new government of the independent Leagio would be. There was debate for a type of Parliamentary Deomcracy, but there was strong motions against that as people wanted to avoid the type of government that the mother country had. Meanwhile, Sule suggested that the country be the Presidential Republic with a mixture of Parliament, where the National Congress (the decided legislative branch of the Commonwealth) would have a senate in the Upper House that represents the states and territories as a whole. this seat would have some Parliamentary powers but is limited on what can be done. This resulted in the creation of the position of Governor-General with powers similar to a Prime Minister but elected by the people separate from the Presidency itself. The Governor-General would be in-charge of the Senate in-terms of procedures. Previously, under the Constitution of 1904, the Governor-General had the ability to cast a vote on legislation in the National Congress, but that was changed and removed.
The idea of the Governor-General existing as a position within the Commonwealth mainly deals with the fact that Sule brought a favorable view of the name through his service in the War of Independence. The Governor-General is seen as a symbol of unity within the Commonwealth as much as the President has. The Commonwealth wanted to ensure that the Governor-General was a position that would have many faces with some of them leaving a mark that would last a lifetime; in order to do that, the position has a three-year term for people that are elected to the position through the Popular Elector College. Initially there was no term limit to the position but that changed ten years into the Commonwealth's independence to a person may only serve two terms as Governor-General.
The Governor-General continues to hold a strong amount of influence on Leagioan society at least symbolically. In addition, it is seen as a stepping stone to the office of President of the Commonwealth.
House of Councilors
Seat Number: 541 (525 Standard Seats + 16 Aboard seats)
Election Method: Additional Member (210 Constituency Seats + 325 List Seats ) / Proportional Representation for Abroad Seats
-Constituency Seats: First-Past-The Post
-List Seats/Abroad Seats: Proportional Representation under the Modfied Saint Legue Method (Can be switch to D'hondt with a threshold)
Term Length: 2 years
Distribution: Home Seats by Population and Abroad Seats equal to at most the least populated State in the Commonwealth
Issue Articles of Impeachment
Start all bills of Reveune and international sanctions
Make a Territory into a State with a Simple Majority
Elect the Governor-General and EU Councilor incase of an Electoral College Tie
Seat Number: 100 (96 Home Seats + 4 Abroad List Seats)
Election Method: Multiple Non-Transferable Vote in Staggered Elections
Term Length: 4 years in Staggered Elections every 2 years (except Abroad Seats are up for election every 2 years)
Distribution: 6 given to States, 4 given to territories, and 4 designated for Leagioans abroad
Accept Presidential Appointments within no later than a month
Confirm and Ratify Treaties through a 2/3 majority
Hear impeachment hearings and convinct with no less than a 2/3's majority with the Supreme Court Chief Justice leading the trial
The governments of all states and territories within the Commonwealth have some differences in some areas but work relatively the same. The main differences some of them might have is whether they have a unicameral or bicameral legislature. Each state and territory has a legislature that is elected by the people within their boundaries with the methods of how these legislatures being elected varying from Fast-Past-The-Post, Proportional Representation, Instant Run-Off, or Parallel Voting. There are only three states within the Commonwealth that have a Bicameral Legislature which is Tullion, Diamond Heart, and Huttson. However, the power of the upper house in these states are mainly holding reviewing and amending powers; which means that it cannot vote to block a bill or kill. The lower houses of these states hold the most power. The system of government that all the states and territories use is a regional version of Sem-Presidential, where the state or territory has a governor that has the power to veto bills, make appointments to certain sectors of the province, and issue executive orders. In addition, under the provisions of the Leagioan Constitution of 2020, the Governor has a seat in the Council of Provinces to discuss and resolve any issues that is hampering their province.
However, the Governor of the state/territory does not have the power to form a cabinet that will implement his policies or head of government. This is a power that resides with the Minister-Governor of the Province, which is the equivalent of a First-Minister or Prime Minister in some countries, is the position with the power to form a government after a election within the legislature, or at least the lower house in some states, where the political parties with seats in the legislature branch acts a parliament and works to form a coalition if they do not have the most seats in the legislature/lower house. Then the legislature votes in a person to act as Minister-Governor, who is the head of government within the province, and forms a cabinet to enact his policies. In most states and territories, especially those whose legislature is elected every two-years, the Legislature does not have the power to remove the government of the Minister-Governor by a Vote of No-Confidence; instead, the Minister-Governor can be impeached for a reason that is deemed legitimate to the province’s supreme/constitutional court after a article of impeachment is submitted to them. However, this method has been rarely done as some political parties fear that it is move that could kill them.
The Minister-Governor in a province normally has the power to draft legislation to be presented to the legislature, but the position does not normally hold the power to dissolve the Legislature or at least the lower house. The only provinces that allow this is Arlick, Beika, Gopen, Jullien, and Carolina. Each State and Territory has a judicial branch that interprets the laws and their own as well as the Leagioan Constitution. In some provinces like Huttson, the Judicial Branch might be divided into two sections one of domestic law and criminal law. How the judges of the judicial branches are appointed varies by province. Some have the Governor appoint them with approval by the Legislature or a certain house of the legislature by a certain vote. Other Provinces have the Minister-Governor appoint the judges to the judicial branch with a approval by the legislature. In some but rare provinces like Jullien, the judicial branch judges are elected on a non-partisan ballot.
Established under the Constitution of 2020 and recently given expanded powers, the Council of Provinces made up of the Governors of all the state and territories of the Commonwealth with the Governor-General having a Chairman role in it. All members of the Council are elected every three years during the Executive Elections. The Council of Province's is not actually considered to be a third house of the National Congress nor was it intended to be. The purpose of the Council was to be an advisory body outside of the Federal/Common Government of the Leagio, where all of the Commonwealth's states and Territories have a chance to officially loge their issues for mediation. Until recently, the Council just produced issued a resolution that was submitted to Congress and the President to hear. However, recent amendents to the Constitution had actually gave the Counil power to enact resolutions that can become actual legislation that goes to the National Congress with a priority status to it or an article of amending the constitution. The Council is mandated by the Constitution to meet once a year at least but emergency sessions can be called by the Governor-General.
In total as of May 2021, the Council of Provinces is composed of 19 governors and the Governor-General. The following are part of the Council with their title and political affiliation attached to them:
Governor-General of the Commonwealth: Magic Kaito (Pact of Democracy)
Governor of Beika: Enos Buchanon (Pact of Democracy)
Governor of Arlick: Roy Elliot (Civil Populist)
Governor of Freedonia: Kelly Idiotus (Socialist)
Governor of Jullien: Sara Nixon (Progressive)
Governor of Muale: Kenith Lifejumper (Civil Populist)
Governor of Sule: Alina Palacio (Progressive)
Governor of Huttson: Sarah Gigot (Conservative Reformist)
Governor of Fiowa: Teddy Fremot (Social Democrat)
Governor of Gopen: William Fort (Civil Populist)
Governor of Niose: Hendrix Dyer (Socialist)
Governor of Carolina: Billy Nulle (Social Democrat)
Governor of Wilson: Victor Reese (Progressive)
Governor of Vernach: Ronald Frese (Conservative Reformist)
Governor of Karptniz: Wilfred Bonaparte (Progressive)
Governor of Condris: Axel Grisen (Progressive)
Governor of Diamond Heart: Luez Vengas (Conservative Reformist)
The history of the Commonwealth starts in around 1824 around the same time as the founding of Elthize. The United Kingdom was looking to expand its colonial holdings in Africa by building outposts and towns that would eventually be developed into money making colonies. The location of the Leagioan Colony was very unique compared to Elthize as it had the Muton River in the middle, where it was deep enough for ships to traverse closer to the valuable diamond mines in both Leagio and Elthize. Leagio was founded first with the establishment of Port Hilson in the modern day Leagioan State of Arlick with a population of around 5,000 that grew in size and population with parts of its being divided into what is now Elthize. The two colonies were given their own colonial governments that were elected with some overrides from the United Kingdom. Eventually things began to change by 1892 in what became called the Great Supression by Leagio, where the United Kingom began to start taxing the Colony of Leagio for every Sulia without its consent. Although, Leagioans did not mind taxes as much as it was not new, but the amount was simply too much that it was not put in place with their permission.
Eventually the Government of Colonial Leagio under Governor-General Felix Sule sent the UK Parliament a direct appeal for a reduction on the taxes, but instead it achieved the opposite as the not long afterwards the United Kingdom declared the Self-Governing Charter of Leagio to be repealed and resulted in the replacement of colonial government with the institution of military government lead by a military governor appointed by the UK Parliament that formed a milita with the UK Army called the Antiparasite (a Leagio French Term for suppressors). The Antiparasite committed tyrannical acts that were brutal with any opposition losing their hands and legs. Eventually, the people of Leagio had enough and rebellion under the leadership of the great orator known as Jean Huttson, who was one of the richest men in the colony and was also affected by the Antiparasite through the loss of his son, who was a newspaper printer that printed articles illustrating the crimes of the Antiparasite.
Huttson convened with the remain representatives of the Colony that opposed the Antiparasite to discuss the best course and outcome that they should reach for. Eventually, the committee filled with Leagioan representatives agreed on the decision to declare independence from the United Kingdom with the creation of a Declaration of Independence. The Colonial Government in the colony of Elithize was asked to join in the War for Independence but the government in Forecaster declined and pledged loyalty to the crown. Although, Elithize was on the side of the Uk, there were volunteers in Forecoaster that wanted a independent Elthize from the UK and joined the Leagioan Liberation Army as the Elthizic Division. The War For Leagioan Independence, which officially began October 4th, 1895, would be a long and painful struggle for the people of the newly established Commonwealth of Leagio. The turning point of the war would be at the Battle of Geaqi in the state of Diamond Heart, where the main army of the Antiparasite and UK colonial forces were decisively defeated and forced to surrender after being surrounded. By 1902, the war was won for the Commonwealth as the United Kingdom agreed to give them independence.
After the Presidency of Jean Huttson, the nation would continue to develop itself, particular in the western portion, as more and more immigrated to the Commonwealth with the formation of new states and territories. The expansion of the Commonwealth began to show the stablity and prosperity of the new independent government. Eventually with backdoor helping of President Louie Holland, the dream of an independent Elthize came by harboring and supplying the revolutionaries in Forecaster that would bring a independent Elthize in 1937. However, by 1940, the first of the many weakness of the Constitution of 1904 began to show as the guidelines of what roles of the Chamber of Councils were in comparison to the Senate were never fully defined by the Constitution of 1904. The Senate began to take over roles that was assumed to be for the Chamber of Councilor. The issue became even more glaring by 1945, when the Senate passed a bill that limited the roles of the Chamber of Councilors to the point that it was only added space within the National Congress. The debacle almost resulted a civil war with the Commonwealth until the President at the time, Leo Holland intervened between the two houses.
President Holland convinced the Senate to repeal the law limiting the powers and abilities of the Chamber of Councilors. In addition, he was able to settle an agreement on what the roles were between each House of the National Congress. The two houses of the National Congress followed with the agreement until it was ultimately declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Leagio in 1987. This move by the Supreme Court would reignite the tensions between the two houses of the National Congress, became one of the main reasons for a reform within the Leagioan Government.
Another conflicting issue with the Constitution was the hardline guidelines that Territories need to follow in order to have their status to be upgraded into a State within the Commonwealth. The guidelines were vague, particularly the part that required that territorial governments be not oppressive to its people. This issue mainly affected the Eastern Territories, which have been under Leagioan administration since the founding of the Commonwealth. Territories do no have as much representation within the Congress than a state does, which is an issue as it hard for them to be prominent within Leagioan politics. The problems from this have brought in concerns within Tulion that the Eastern territories might try to secceede from the Commonwealth.
There are other issues with the Consitution and particularly the popular voting system that elects the President of the Commonwealth because it was not meant for elections that would have more than three candidates. The smallest percentage that a winning Candidate received within the Presidential election was 28% in 1973. There are currently calls to reform the Presidential election towhere there is the second round of elections for the Presidential race with the highest-ranking candidates placed in the ballots.
When the economic crash that occurred in April of 2020 happened, the President of the Commonwealth with the support of the Governor-General called for the National Congress to vote on a resolution where the Commonwealth should join the European Union as a way to help lessen the economic crisis that the nation was facing. However, in order for the resolution of such importance to be passed, an approval of 2/3's Majority was needed for it to be implmented. Although, the Civil Populists were the leading party of the National Congress in terms of seats in the leagislative branch, they did not have a 2/3's majority of all the seats in both houses. This issue resulted in the Civil Populist Party agreeing to negiotate with the other political parties within the National Congress. Reform would come through the Constitution of 2020, but it would be amended again 2022 to be more Parliamentary for Leagio.