Renewed Sanction Motion Against the USNR


  • EU

    Again I say, the regime in occupied Icholasen have form a toxic structure and is organically linked in their policy to other regimes and countries aimed at repression of the dignity and integrity of the human being.

    History shows that nations that respect the rights of all their citizens are more just, more prosperous and more secure. At this time of extreme challenges, we must not abandon the responsibility to protect or leave it in a state of suspended animation, finely articulated in words but breached time and again in practice. As United Nicolezian Socialist Republics has done.

    Socialism is the opium of this Union, let's put an end to those who started.

    Lofty principles mean little if they cannot be applied when they matter most. And this is the time.

    Emma Granger
    Councillor of Montenbourg


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    OOC: Credit to the editors of Wikipedia and to @Alkharya. The following content is taken from a Wikipedia article that you can probably already guess.

    Anja Mauer spoke.

    "My opposition to this act remains the same. We cannot infringe upon the right of nations and cultures to conduct themselves according to their traditions, so long as said traditions do not do undue harm to any individual; at the same time, diplomacy must always come before the war path. With that, I have the following to contribute:"

    "H, or h, is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is aitch (pronounced /ˈeɪtʃ/, plural aitches), or regionally haitch /ˈheɪtʃ/.

    The original Semitic letter Heth most likely represented the voiceless pharyngeal fricative (ħ). The form of the letter probably stood for a fence or posts.

    The Greek eta 'Η' in Archaic Greek alphabets still represented /h/ (later on it came to represent a long vowel, /ɛː/). In this context, the letter eta is also known as heta to underline this fact. Thus, in the Old Italic alphabets, the letter heta of the Euboean alphabet was adopted with its original sound value /h/.

    While Etruscan and Latin had /h/ as a phoneme, almost all Romance languages lost the sound—Romanian later re-borrowed the /h/ phoneme from its neighbouring Slavic languages, and Spanish developed a secondary /h/ from /f/, before losing it again; various Spanish dialects have developed [h] as an allophone of /s/ or /x/ in most Spanish-speaking countries, and various dialects of Portuguese use it as an allophone of /ʀ/. 'H' is also used in many spelling systems in digraphs and trigraphs, such as 'ch', which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish, Galician, Old Portuguese and English, /ʃ/ in French and modern Portuguese, /k/ in Italian, French and English, /x/ in German, Czech, Polish, Slovak, one native word of English and a few loanwords into English, and /ç/ in German.

    For most English speakers, the name for the letter is pronounced as /eɪtʃ/ and spelled "aitch"[1] or occasionally "eitch". The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ and the associated spelling "haitch" is often considered to be h-adding and is considered nonstandard in England.[2] It is, however, a feature of Hiberno-English,[3] as well as scattered varieties of Edinburgh, England, and Welsh English,[4] and in Australia and Nova Scotia.

    The perceived name of the letter affects the choice of indefinite article before initialisms beginning with H: for example "an H-bomb" or "a H-bomb". The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ may be a hypercorrection formed by analogy with the names of the other letters of the alphabet, most of which include the sound they represent.[5]

    The haitch pronunciation of h has spread in English-speaking countries, being used by approximately 24% of native-born English speakers born since 1982,[6] and polls continue to show this pronunciation becoming more common among younger native speakers. Despite this increasing number, the pronunciation without the /h/ sound is still considered to be standard in English, although the pronunciation with /h/ is also attested as a legitimate variant.[2]

    Authorities disagree about the history of the letter's name. The Oxford English Dictionary says the original name of the letter was [ˈaha] in Latin; this became [ˈaka] in Vulgar Latin, passed into English via Old French [atʃ], and by Middle English was pronounced [aːtʃ]. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language derives it from French hache from Latin haca or hic. Anatoly Liberman suggests a conflation of two obsolete orderings of the alphabet, one with H immediately followed by K and the other without any K: reciting the former's ..., H, K, L,... as [...(h)a ka el ...] when reinterpreted for the latter ..., H, L,... would imply a pronunciation [(h)a ka] for H.[7]

    English
    In English, ⟨h⟩ occurs as a single-letter grapheme (being either silent or representing the voiceless glottal fricative (/h/) and in various digraphs, such as ⟨ch⟩ /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /k/, or /x/), ⟨gh⟩ (silent, /ɡ/, /k/, /p/, or /f/), ⟨ph⟩ (/f/), ⟨rh⟩ (/r/), ⟨sh⟩ (/ʃ/), ⟨th⟩ (/θ/ or /ð/), ⟨wh⟩ (/hw/[8]). The letter is silent in a syllable rime, as in ah, ohm, dahlia, cheetah, pooh-poohed, as well as in certain other words (mostly of French origin) such as hour, honest, herb (in American but not British English) and vehicle (in certain varieties of English). Initial /h/ is often not pronounced in the weak form of some function words including had, has, have, he, her, him, his, and in some varieties of English (including most regional dialects of England and Wales) it is often omitted in all words (see '⟨h⟩'-dropping). It was formerly common for an rather than a to be used as the indefinite article before a word beginning with /h/ in an unstressed syllable, as in "an historian", but use of a is now more usual (see English articles § Indefinite article). In English, The pronunciation of ⟨h⟩ as /h/ can be analyzed as a voiceless vowel. That is, when the phoneme /h/ precedes a vowel, /h/ may be realized as a voiceless version of the subsequent vowel. For example the word ⟨hit⟩, /hɪt/ is realized as [ɪ̥ɪt].[9] H is the eighth most frequently used letter in the English language (after S, N, I, O, A, T, and E), with a frequency of about 4.2% in words.[citation needed] When h is placed after certain other consonants, it modifies their pronunciation in various ways, e.g. for ch, gh, ph, sh and th.

    Other languages
    In the German language, the name of the letter is pronounced /haː/. Following a vowel, it often silently indicates that the vowel is long: In the word erhöhen ('heighten'), the second ⟨h⟩ is mute for most speakers outside of Switzerland. In 1901, a spelling reform eliminated the silent ⟨h⟩ in nearly all instances of ⟨th⟩ in native German words such as thun ('to do') or Thür ('door'). It has been left unchanged in words derived from Greek, such as Theater ('theater') and Thron ('throne'), which continue to be spelled with ⟨th⟩ even after the last German spelling reform.

    In Spanish and Portuguese, ⟨h⟩ ("hache" in Spanish, pronounced ['atʃe], or agá in Portuguese, pronounced [aˈɣa] or [ɐˈɡa]) is a silent letter with no pronunciation, as in hijo [ˈixo] ('son') and húngaro [ˈũɡaɾu] ('Hungarian'). The spelling reflects an earlier pronunciation of the sound /h/. It is sometimes pronounced with the value [h], in some regions of Andalusia, Extremadura, Canarias, Cantabria and the Americas in the beginning of some words. ⟨h⟩ also appears in the digraph ⟨ch⟩, which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish and northern Portugal, and /ʃ/ in oral traditions that merged both sounds (the latter originarily represented by ⟨x⟩ instead) e.g. in most of the Portuguese language and some Spanish-speaking places, prominently Chile, as well as ⟨nh⟩ /ɲ/ and ⟨lh⟩ /ʎ/ in Portuguese, whose spelling is inherited from Occitan.

    In French, the name of the letter is written as "ache" and pronounced /aʃ/. The French orthography classifies words that begin with this letter in two ways, one of which can affect the pronunciation, even though it is a silent letter either way. The H muet, or "mute" ⟨h⟩, is considered as though the letter were not there at all, so for example the singular definite article le or la, which is elided to l' before a vowel, elides before an H muet followed by a vowel. For example, le + hébergement becomes l'hébergement ('the accommodation'). The other kind of ⟨h⟩ is called h aspiré ("aspirated '⟨h⟩'", though it is not normally aspirated phonetically), and does not allow elision or liaison. For example in le homard ('the lobster') the article le remains unelided, and may be separated from the noun with a bit of a glottal stop. Most words that begin with an H muet come from Latin (honneur, homme) or from Greek through Latin (hécatombe), whereas most words beginning with an H aspiré come from Germanic (harpe, hareng) or non-Indo-European languages (harem, hamac, haricot); in some cases, an orthographic ⟨h⟩ was added to disambiguate the [v] and semivowel [ɥ] pronunciations before the introduction of the distinction between the letters ⟨v⟩ and ⟨u⟩: huit (from uit, ultimately from Latin octo), huître (from uistre, ultimately from Greek through Latin ostrea).

    In Italian, ⟨h⟩ has no phonological value. Its most important uses are in the digraphs 'ch' /k/ and 'gh' /ɡ/, as well as to differentiate the spellings of certain short words that are homophones, for example some present tense forms of the verb avere ('to have') (such as hanno, 'they have', vs. anno, 'year'), and in short interjections (oh, ehi).

    Some languages, including Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, and Finnish, use ⟨h⟩ as a breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ], often as an allophone of otherwise voiceless /h/ in a voiced environment.

    In Hungarian, the letter has five independent pronunciations, perhaps more than in any other language, with an additional three uses as a productive and non-productive member of a digraph. H may represent /h/ as in the name of the Székely town Hargita; intervocalically it represents /ɦ/ as in "tehéz"; it represents /x/ in the word "doh"; it represents /ç/ in "ihlet"; and it is silent in "Cseh". As part of a diphthong, it represents, in archaic spelling, /t͡ʃ/ with the letter C as in the name "Széchényi; it represents, again, with the letter C, /x/ in "pech" (which is pronounced [pɛx]); in certain environments it breaks palatalization of a consonant, as in the name "Horthy" which is pronounced [hɔrti] (without the intervening H, the name "Horty" would be pronounced [hɔrc]); and finally, it acts as a silent component of a diphthong, as in the name "Vargha", pronounced [vɒrgɒ].

    In Ukrainian and Belarusian, when written in the Latin alphabet, ⟨h⟩ is also commonly used for /ɦ/, which is otherwise written with the Cyrillic letter ⟨г⟩.

    In Irish, ⟨h⟩ is not considered an independent letter, except for a very few non-native words, however ⟨h⟩ placed after a consonant is known as a "séimhiú" and indicates lenition of that consonant; ⟨h⟩ began to replace the original form of a séimhiú, a dot placed above the consonant, after the introduction of typewriters.

    In most dialects of Polish, both ⟨h⟩ and the digraph ⟨ch⟩ always represent /x/.

    In Basque, during the 20th century it was not used in the orthography of the Basque dialects in Spain but it marked an aspiration in the North-Eastern dialects. During the standardization of Basque in the 1970s, the compromise was reached that h would be accepted if it were the first consonant in a syllable. Hence, herri ("people") and etorri ("to come") were accepted instead of erri (Biscayan) and ethorri (Souletin). Speakers could pronounce the h or not. For the dialects lacking the aspiration, this meant a complication added to the standardized spelling.

    Other systems
    As a phonetic symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), it is used mainly for the so-called aspirations (fricative or trills), and variations of the plain letter are used to represent two sounds: the lowercase form ⟨h⟩ represents the voiceless glottal fricative, and the small capital form ⟨ʜ⟩ represents the voiceless epiglottal fricative (or trill). With a bar, minuscule ⟨ħ⟩ is used for a voiceless pharyngeal fricative. Specific to the IPA, a hooked ⟨ɦ⟩ is used for a voiced glottal fricative, and a superscript ⟨ʰ⟩ is used to represent aspiration.

    Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet
    H with diacritics: Ĥ ĥ Ȟ ȟ Ħ ħ Ḩ ḩ Ⱨ ⱨ ẖ ẖ Ḥ ḥ Ḣ ḣ Ḧ ḧ Ḫ ḫ ꞕ
    IPA-specific symbols related to H: ʜ ꟸ ɦ ʰ ʱ ɥ ᶣ[10]
    ᴴ : Modifier letter H is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet[11]
    ₕ : Subscript small h was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[12]
    ʰ : Modifier letter small h is used in Indo-European studies[13]
    ʮ and ʯ : Turned H with fishhook and turned H with fishhook and tail are used in Sino-Tibetanist linguistics[14]
    Ƕ ƕ : Latin letter hwair, derived from a ligature of the digraph hv, and used to transliterate the Gothic letter 𐍈 (which represented the sound [hʷ])
    Ⱶ ⱶ : Claudian letters[15]
    Ꟶ ꟶ : Reversed half h used in Roman inscriptions from the Roman provinces of Gaul[16]
    Ancestors, siblings and descendants in other alphabets
    𐤇 : Semitic letter Heth, from which the following symbols derive
    Η η : Greek letter Eta, from which the following symbols derive
    𐌇 : Old Italic H, the ancestor of modern Latin H
    ᚺ, ᚻ : Runic letter haglaz, which is probably a descendant of Old Italic H
    Һ һ : Cyrillic letter Shha, which derives from Latin H
    𐌷 : Gothic letter haal
    Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations
    h : Planck constant
    ℏ : reduced Planck constant
    {\displaystyle \mathbb {H} }\mathbb {H} : Blackboard bold capital H used in quaternion notation"

    "Thank you for listening," she said, finishing.

    Anja Mauer
    Councillor for the Federation of Istkalen


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    OOC: Credit, again, with the editors of Spanish-language wikipedia.

    Anja Mauer again spoke. "I am sorry for my silence in this period, but I was writing my amendments - amendments made entirely in good faith, amendments which will, I promise you, make this legislation more acceptable. Redundant, it will be, of course, if they pass, but that is of little matter. With that, let us begin their presentation:"

    "The Spanish Trade Union Organization (OSE),1commonly known as the Vertical Union or simply as a Trade UnionOrganization, it was the only trade union power plant that existed in Spain between 1940 and 1977,during the period of the Franco dictatorship. For nearly forty years it became the only legal union to be authorized. All workers and employers, who became known as "producers" in Franco's terminology, were required by law to be affiliated with the Vertical Union.1The Trade Union Organization was established after the end of the CivilWar, while previous trade union organizations such as the CNT anarchist and the socialist UGT were outlawed and went underground. Nor was this an impediment to clandestine organisations such as the Workers' Commissions or the Workers' Union infiltrating it amendment one section one economic sanctions member all states shall cease the export of after Franco's death and the beginning of the Transition, Adolfo Suárez's government decided to dissolve the Vertical Union, which by then was greatly affected by the infiltration of Workers' Commissions and the Workers' Union. However, the former trade union structure remained and was converted into the Institutional Administration of Socio-Professional Services (ISSA), a body that took over the immense documentary fund and real estate assets held by the Vertical Trade Unions. After the start of the Civil War in July 1936, from the outset the authorities of the rebel zone decreed the illegalization of the main class trade union organizations, as was the case with the anarchist National Labour Confederation (CNT) and the socialist General Union of Workers (UGT). In 1938 the Franco authorities promulgated the so-called Fuero del Trabajo,a legislative rule that, in imitation of the Italian fascist model and its Lavoro Charter,laid the foundation for state intervention in the world of work. It was from this legislation that the foundations were laid for the creation of a new trade union organization based on the corporatist model of a vertical union that grouped workers and employers into the same organization. The law of 30 January 1938 also created the Ministry of Trade Union Organization and Action, which from then on became the state agency responsible for labour and trade union issues.2​ An antecedent of the Trade Union Organization was the National-Sindicalist Workers' Central (CONS) founded in 1935 by Falange Española de las JONS,although for much of its existence CONS had a very limited influence. After 1938, the OSE was the result of the merger of workers' organizations close to the Phalanx and employers' organizations, in order to organize workers, technicians and employers amendment two section one economic sanctions membe all states shall cease the export trade of within a single vertical structure, ideal similar to the fascist to achieve the industrial relations of a corporate state, in the face of the national syndicalist ideal of the Phalange that in theory seemed to be wanted to follow (and which was never applied). In it, all workers, called "producers", and their employers had the right to choose their representatives through elections. Although the Vertical Union began to have some activity from 1940, as a result of the laws passed that same year by the dictatorship, paradoxically it did not hold its first congress until March 1961.In the context of the first stage of the Franco regime (1939-1959), on 26 January 1940 the so-called Trade Union Unity Act was enacted which established that employers and workers would be integrated into a single trade union organization under the command of FET and JONS. The preamble to the law read: "Three are the principles that inspire the national organizationindicalist envisaged in the Labour Fuero, a faithful reflection of the political organization of the new State, namely unity, totality and hierarchy".3The new trade union organization would in turn be organized into branches of production, each of which would be called the National Union. On the other hand, geographical locations were called «National-Unionist Centrals». All of this was the "National-Trade Unionist Organization" envisaged by the Labour Fuero of 1938, although from the 1940s it began to be simply called the Trade Union Organization. From the outset it became clear that the state controlled the entire system. On 6 December 1940, with the enactment of the Law on The Basis of the Trade Union Organization, the forced affiliation of all workers and employers ("producers") in the trade union structure of the Regime under the principles of "verticality, unity, totality and hierarchy" became implicit.4As one of the leaders of the Trade Unions later stated, "vertical trade unions are not instruments of classist struggle. On the contrary, they place as the first of their aspirations, not the abolition of classes, which must always exist, but their harmonization and cooperation under the sign of the general interest of the Fatherland".4​ One of the possible areas of trade union action, labour conflict, was closed as the Labour Force directly attributed to the State the competences in this area, for which Labour Magistratures were created that they had to resolve in the event of a failure of trade union conciliation.2​ Gerardo Salvador Merino was one of the first hierarchies of the Trade Union Organization, at a time when trade unions were in the training phase. Salvador Merino was in favour of autonomy for the Trade Unions with respect to the General Secretariat of the "Movement" and the Franco apparatus, and hoped to be able to create a trade unionism that would constitute as a fundamental part of the regime.5In addition, Gerardo Salvador maintained a manifest German-phile stance and was a supporter of the model inspired by the German Labour Front. However, these political stances generated a large number of enemies within the Franco apparatus and in September 1941 he was relieved, defended by maneuvers in the shadow of his rivals. One of the reasons for his dismissal had been the pact he had signed on 21 August with the leader of the German Labour Front, Robert Ley,to send 100,000 workers to Germany, although the agreement would later be renegotiating and workers reduced to 15,000.6​Manuel Valdés Larrañaga, an old shirt faithful to Franco, became the new strongman of the unions. Valdés carried out a reorganization of the internal structure of the trade unions, while imbuing them with a more conservative and religious character.7As a result of the new winds blowing, the until then rowdy unions became totally docile with power.8Theoretically, within the Trade Union, workers and employers were supposed to be in a similar situation, although strikes were prohibited and on many occasions conflicts with employers' management often ended with mass layoffs. This situation took place especially during the early years of the dictatorship, especially during the 1940s and 1950s.9The figure of the employer was reinforced by Franco's legislation and, in fact, workers were supposed to owe him full loyalty, assistance and protection to employers.9​During the dictatorship, due to the corporatist system, the Unions sent several councillors to the Spanish Courts on behalf of the Trade Union Organization, but would later also send representatives ("procurators") to the National Council of the Movement and the Council of the Kingdom.10An election system for trade union links has been established from the outset, but candidates had to be affiliated with FET and JONS and were subject to strict control by the authorities. On the other hand, the entire electoral process was fiercely controlled from trade union headquarters. At this time women were totally excluded from the world of work and there was also no unemployment benefit system.The arrival of the 1960s marked the beginning of some openness within the SSO. Trade union elections have been held since 1944 to elect trade union representatives and delegates, and since 1954 it has ceased to be necessary to hold a FET and JONS card in order to participate in trade union elections.11It was not until after 1958, after the adoption of the Labour Conventions Act, which increased the interest and participation of workers in trade union representative elections. This was joined by a certain opening of the trade union apparatus in electoral processes, with less obstructionism of the regime towards unofficial candidacies. From the unionist apparatus there was even an attempt to attract former anarcho-syndicalist leaders into his bosom.12One of the architects of this timid opening was the trade union adviser José Solís Ruiz,who thus sought approval from the International Labour Organization (ILO). However, the National Information and Research Delegation had carte blanche to investigate the past of candidates for trade union elections and to oversee the electoral process itself.13​ At that time, in the early 1960s, the then clandestine Communist Party of Spain (PCE) decided to implement a policy of infiltration into vertical trade unions, in theory, to achieve practical increases for workers' conditions. In reality, it was about taking advantage of the regime's structures to lead to its fall from within. From this came the so-called Workers' Commissions (CC.OO.), with prominent figures such as Marcelino Camacho. On the contrary, other clandestine trade unions such as UGT or CNT opposed this policy of infiltration, although in the case of other organizations such as the Christian-inspired Workers' Union (USO), they did support and participate in this policy of infiltration.These aperturistic measures failed to get the ILO to give its go-ahead, and to top it all off they ended up encountering the front opposition of the technocratic officials of the Franco administration. Although the Phalangist bureaucracy saw at the opening a possibility of expanding its bases among the workers, the experiment was a failure and by 1967-1968 it could be terminated.14In this context, Solís had no problem supporting the repression of Workers' Commissions during the state of emergency decreed in 1968.12This situation was maintained even after the adoption of the Trade Union Act of 1971, adopted 17 February of that year, which did not bring about any innovation within the Vertical Trade Unions and which for practical purposes constituted little more than a mere set of regulatory and/or administrative regulations.12On the contrary, trade union activity became dependent on the Ministry of Trade Union Relations. Despite the timid reforms undertaken by José Solís, the OSE never came to the approval of the International Labour Organization, and although the union maintained a time of détente with the ILO during the 1960s, this ended in 1969 after the international body published a report very critical of the employment and trade union situation in Spain that same year.12​During the last years of the Franco dictatorship the trade union organization lost much of its previous strength, while illegal trade unions (especially CC.OO. and USO) became increasingly strong. In fact, after Franco died and until the abolition of the SSO, most employers preferred to agree on agreements and business pacts with the representation of the clandestine trade union organizations than with the representatives of the SSO. Transition and After Franco's death, during the first months of 1976, opposition union forces undertook a major campaign of mobilizations and strikes totalling 17,731 strikes.15The extraordinary increase in labour conflict was due in particular to the 1973Oil Crisis, the effects of which would be felt over the next few years on the Spanish economy and society. There was also strong pressure from workers who openly demanded free and democratic trade union representation. With illegal trade union organizations become the main player in the labor struggle, the existence of vertical trade unions was further questioned. The political reform undertaken by government president Adolfo Suarez included the adoption of freedom of association: this in practice meant the death of Franco's Unions. Paradoxically, Adolfo Suarez had been Minister-Secretary-General of the Movement until his new appointment. On October 8, 1976, the Suarez government approved the creation of the Institutional Administration of Socioprofessional Services (ISSA), an autonomous body dependent on the presidency of the government in which the trade union structure was integrated.16The ISSA took over the ownership and management of trade union real estate and all its archives. On 1 April 1977, the right to trade union association was finally recognized, and a Royal Decree of 2 June of that same year extinguished compulsory trade union membership.17Shortly after the dissolution, many of the former employers who had been integrated into vertical trade unions became part of the Spanish Confederation of Business Organizations (CEOE).18A Royal Decree of 6 December declared the structures of the Vertical Union extinct.19The Law on the Transfer of Assets of the Accumulated Trade Union Heritage, aims to solve two problems: the ownership of the goods and rights from the old Trade Union Organization and the other Trade Union Entities prior to the new constitutional system and the seizure of the assets of the Trade Union Organizations as a result of the Spanish civil war. A former director of the Vertical Unions, Juan García Carrés,would later stand out for his partition in the failed coup d'etre of February 23, 1981.With the enactment of the Trade Union Classification Act on 23 June 1941, the trade union organization was structured, resulting in 24 national trade unions being created.20Subsequently, the number of trade unions increased to 26.21In 1941 it was organized as well:National Water, Gas and Electricity UnionNational Sugar UnionNational Banking and Stock Exchange UnionNational Grain UnionNational Fuel UnionNational Clothing UnionNationalConstruction UnionNational Show UnionNational Union of Fruits and Horticultural ProductsNational Livestock UnionNational Hospitality and Similar UnionNational Chemical Industries UnionNational Wood and Cork UnionNational Metal UnionNational Olive UnionNational Trade Union on Paper, Press and Graphic ArtsNational Fisheries UnionNational Skin UnionNational Colonial Products UnionNational InsuranceUnionNational Textile UnionNational Transport and Communications UnionNational Vine, Beers and Beverages UnionNational Glass and Ceramics UnionSubsequently, the Textile and Clothing Unions would merge, creating the National Textile and Clothing Union.Throughout its existence, the Trade Union Organization had a large bureaucratic fabric and had a number of organizations through which it performed its "social" functions. Many of these were so-called "Trade Union Works", of an healthcare nature and focused on different areas: the"Trade UnionWork of the Home" ( promotion of housing for workers), the «Trade Union Work 18 de Julio» — health care – or the Work « Education andRest».22​to​The latter trade union work, "Education and Rest" (EyD), was a recreational organization that had been created by the Franco regime24​25EyD was the most important and successful of all the organizations available to Franco's vertical unions. Education and Rest offered workers a wide range of sociocultural activities (theatres, folk music, musical choirs...) as well as sporting events and physical education activities. There was a network of cultural centres for EyD members, which included holiday homes and sports centres.24​Vertical Trade Unions even came to have their own media communication bodies. In the journalistic field they had the newspaper Pueblo,founded in the mid-1940s and which eventually became one of the most important newspapers in Franco's Spain.26In the radio field was the Union Broadcasting Chain (CES), established in 1953, which constituted a group of different radio stations that belonged to the trade union structure.27In Spain during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, the trade union organization started from the local sphere and from the units or cells of work.SchemaNational Delegation of Trade Unions:National trade unions.National Brotherhood Board.National Trade Union Centres:Provincial Delegations of Trade Unions.Official Chamber of Agricultural Trade Union.Regional Trade Union Delegations:Artisan Guilds.Fishermen's Guilds.Business Unions.Mixed Entities.Union Brotherhoods of the Field.Local Trade Union Delegation.Artisan Guilds.Fishermen'sGuilds.Business Unions.Mixed Entities.Union Brotherhood of Labradors and RanchersCompanies - peasant families - fishing families - artisans - independent producers."

    She paused.

    "I hope," she said, "that you will find the two amendments I have proposed, as well as all other information I have given regarding them, this act, and areas related to this act. Thank you for your time.""

    Anja Mauer
    Councillor for the Federation of Istkalen


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    James Mizrachi Roscoe "Can we have Ms Anja Mauer brought to order or kicked out the chamber we have serious business to discuss and she obviously wants to act like a child."


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    Anja Mauer spoke again. "The Federation of Istkalen's objections to this legislation continue to stand. They do not regard the economic sanctions, which we support fully; rather, it regards Sections II and III, which we would like to see removed entirely. It is our opinion we should strive towards a state of détente with such states as the UNSR as for the peace and wellbeing of the citizens of the Union as a whole, and that national sovereignty should be preserved as far as is possible. With that, I propose the following amendments:

    AMENDMENT III

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR who are concurrently citizens of the United Dominions of Icholasen can be extended at the discretion of any member-state. Visas to naturalized citizens of the UNSR may be extended, still under the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research, or as according to other purposes that a nation's culture or entrenched political institutions - that is, institutions which have taken up a cultural role and are considered by the population to be integral parts of a nation or member-state.

    If amendment III is unacceptable due to the final clause, amendment IV, which removes it, may suffice.

    AMENDMENT IV

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR who are concurrently citizens of the United Dominions of Icholasen can be extended at the discretion of any member-state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR who do not fall into this category may be extended, still under the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research.

    Some may argue that we must err on the cause of safety; as a result, as to satiate these people, I propose the following amendment:

    AMENDMENT V

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR can be extended at the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research, or as according to other purposes that a nation's culture or entrenched political institutions - that is, institutions which have taken up a cultural role or are considered by the population to be integral parts of a nation or member-state.

    Others, of course, may again wish for the change regarding cultural institutions. This is, again not something I agree with, but in order to make this bill as agreeable as possible to the Federation, I feel compelled to propose it. With that, I propose the following amendment:

    AMENDMENT VI

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR can be extended at the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research.

    We then move, of course, to the next section, which, in the opinion of the Government of the Federation, makes a number of entirely false accusations. There is no evidence that the politicians of the UNSR have been complicit in war crimes or crimes against peace. We do not include crimes against humanity in this list because there exists some evidence to show that the UNSR has effected forced disappearances. Despite this, it is the belief of the Federation that détente must be sought; as a result, we propose the following amendment.

    AMENDMENT VII

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.

    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable.

    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace. It is recognized that the aforementioned individuals are possibly complicit, as members of the government of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics, in the committing of crimes against humanity. Due to the extenuating circumstances present currently, however, no specific course of action is recommended by the institutions of the European Union. If the decision is made to arrest and try these individuals, the Union recommends but does not mandate that as the alleged crimes against humanity took place in the territory recognized as being that of the United Dominions of Icholasen by this Union, a final ruling should be made by the institutions of the United Dominions of Icholasen.

    We do understand that the wording above, while appropriate in our eyes, may not be appropriate for others. As a result, we propose a better, more watered-down wording, that while less appealing for us, may be more appealing for others.

    AMENDMENT VIII

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.

    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable.

    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace. It is recognized that the aforementioned individuals are likely complicit, as officials of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics, in the committing of crimes against humanity, among other crimes directed at general groupings of individuals that the organization known as the UNSR opposes or finds a threat. Due to the extenuating circumstances present currently, however, no specific course of action is recommended by the institutions of the European Union. If the decision is made to arrest and try these individuals, the Union recommends that as the alleged crimes against humanity took place in the territory recognized as being that of the United Dominions of Icholasen by this Union, a final ruling should be made by the institutions of the United Dominions of Icholasen.

    More amendments will be proposed later.

    Anja Mauer
    Councillor for the Federation of Istkalen


  • EU

    "No" (said Karl respectfully )I think Mrs Mauer has the right to talk about any thing she wants to or as my colleagues say " Haz lo que te salga del papo" We are no one to deny the right of the Istkalean councillor unless it breaks any EU law that as far as im concerned she isnt.
    So, Yall wanna talk about Burgers?

    Karl Hennderssen (( Finally found his name lol))
    Interim Councillor for Mennrimiak


  • EU

    I also would like to request an extension of debate. I have not yet finished taking my notes and writing the proposed changes that Istkalen wishes to see before this legislation becomes somewhat acceptable; at the same time, it is evident that very few have as of yet voiced their opinions regarding this legislation.

    I also have several more comments about this legislation to add:

    Release history of Firefox 31–37
    Firefox 38 through 44
    Both Firefox 38 and Firefox 38 ESR were released on May 12, 2015, with new tab-based preferences, Ruby annotation support and availability of WebSockets in web workers, along with the implementation of the BroadcastChannel API and other features and security fixes.[208]

    Firefox 39 was released on July 2, 2015 for desktop and Android, disabling insecure SSLv3 and RC4, improving performance for IPv6 fallback to IPv4 and including various security fixes.[209][210] Firefox 39.0.3 was released on August 6, 2015, to fix a zero-day exploit.[211]

    Firefox 40 was released on August 11, 2015 for desktop and Android. On Windows 10, the Australis theme was updated to reflect the overall appearance of Windows 10, and the interface is adapted for usability on touchscreens when used in the operating system's "Tablet mode". Firefox 40 includes additional security features, including the filtering of pages that offer potentially unwanted programs, and warnings during the installation of unsigned extensions; in future versions, signing of extensions will become mandatory, and the browser will refuse to install extensions that have not been signed. Firefox 40 also includes performance improvements, such as off-main-thread compositing on Linux.[212][213][214]

    Firefox 41 was released on September 22, 2015 for desktop and Android. Among many additions are the ability to set a profile picture for a Firefox account, enhanced IME support using Text Services Framework, and instant messaging on Firefox Hello.[215][216]

    Firefox 42 was released on November 3, 2015 for desktop and Android. Among many additions are private browsing with tracking protection, IPv6 support in WebRTC, and the ability to view HTML source in a tab.[217][218]

    Firefox 43 was released on December 15, 2015 for desktop and Android. Among many additions are the availability of the 64-bit version for Windows 7 and above, a new strict blocklist, and audio indicators on Android.[219][220]

    Firefox 44 was released on January 26, 2016 for desktop and Android. Among many additions are the improvement of warning pages for certificate errors and untrusted connections, enabling of H.264 and WebM/VP9 video support on systems that don't support MP4/H.264, support for the brotli compression format via HTTPS content-encoding, and the use of Android print service to enable cloud printing.[221][222] "Ask me every time" cookies option was removed without any notifications.[223]

    Release history of Firefox 38–44
    Firefox 45 through 51
    Firefox 45 and Firefox 45 ESR were released on March 8, 2016 for desktop (both) and Android (no ESR). Among many additions were Instant Browser sharing through Hello, the addition of Guarani locale, the ability to filter snapshot output in memory tool, and the removal of the Tab Groups (panorama) feature.[254][255]

    Firefox 46 was released on April 26, 2016 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were improved security of the JavaScript Just In Time (JIT) Compiler, the GTK3 integration (Linux only), HKDF support for Web Crypto API, and removal of support for Android 3.0 (Android only).[256][257]

    Firefox 47 was released on June 7, 2016 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were support for Google's Widevine CDM on Windows and Mac OS X so streaming services like Amazon Video can switch from Silverlight to encrypted HTML5 video; enabling VP9 video codec for users with fast machines; the ability of embedded YouTube videos to play with HTML5 video if Flash is not installed; and the addition of the Latgalian language. It is also the last Firefox version to support Android 2.3.x.[258][259]

    Firefox 48 was released on August 2, 2016 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were enhanced download protection and the removal of the Windows Remote Access Service modem Autodial. It was also the first official release with "Electrolysis" (multi-process Firefox, meaning that the interface and web pages are running in separate processes in the computer) was enabled.

    Firefox 48 is the last Firefox version to support Mac OS X Snow Leopard, Mac OS X Lion, and OS X Mountain Lion.[260] Additionally, support for old processors without SSE2 extensions such as the AMD Athlon XP and Pentium III was dropped.[260]

    Firefox 49 was released on September 20, 2016 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were an updated Firefox Login Manager, improved video performance for users on systems that support SSE3 without hardware acceleration, added context menu controls to HTML5 audio and video that let users loop files or play files at 1.25x speed, improvements in about:memory reports for tracking font memory usage, and the removal of Firefox Hello.[261][262] The macOS version now requires at least OS X Mavericks, and the Microsoft Windows version requires a CPU which supports SSE2.[260]

    Firefox 50 was released on November 15, 2016 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were playback video on more sites without plugins with WebM EME Support for Widevine on Windows and Mac, improved performance for SDK extensions or extensions using the SDK module loader; download protection for a large number of executable file types on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux, increased availability of WebGL to more than 98 percent of users on Windows 7 and newer (desktop), and support for HLS videos via player overlay (Android).[263][264]

    Firefox 51 was released on January 24, 2017 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were added support for FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) playback, better Tab Switching, support for WebGL 2, and a warning that is displayed when a login page does not have a secure connection.[265][266]

    Release history of Firefox 45–51
    Firefox 52 through 59
    Logo used from Firefox 57 to Firefox 69
    Logo used from Firefox 57 to Firefox 69
    Firefox 52 and Firefox 52 ESR were released on March 7, 2017 for desktop (both) and Android (no ESR). An important aspect of Firefox ESR 52.0 is that it is the first ESR version based on Firefox Electrolysis (Firefox 48) code base. Firefox 52 added support for WebAssembly (while disabled in Firefox ESR 52), an emerging standard that brings near-native performance to Web-based games, apps, and software libraries without the use of plugins; automatic captive portal detection, for easier access to Wi-Fi hotspots; user warnings for insecure HTTP pages with logins (desktop); and display of media controls to pause or resume playback on the Android notification bar.[300][301] Firefox 52 dropped support for NPAPI plugins like Microsoft Silverlight and Java with the exception of Adobe Flash Player (except the ESR version which still supports NPAPI).[302]

    Firefox 53 was released on April 19, 2017 for both desktop and Android. Starting with Firefox 53, Microsoft Windows support is exclusively for Windows 7 and above. Among the many additions are: improved graphics stability for Windows users with the addition of compositor process separation, light and dark "compact" themes available, based on the Firefox Developer Edition theme, removal of support for 32-bit macOS and Linux support for processors older than Pentium 4 and AMD Opteron; new visual design for audio and video controls, support for WebM video with alpha compositing, which allows playing videos with transparent backgrounds (desktop), Reader Mode displaying estimated reading time for the page (desktop and Android), and enabling two columns tabs setting in portrait mode (Android).[303][304]

    Firefox 54 was released on June 13, 2017 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions are: simplifying the download button and download status panel, added support for multiple content processes, the ability to create and save custom devices in Responsive web design mode (desktop), improved audio and video playback in the browser, and improved bookmarks sync performance (Android).[305][306]

    Firefox 55 was released on August 8, 2017 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions are: the launch of Windows support for WebVR, bringing immersive experiences to the web, options that let users optimize recent performance improvements, simplification of the installation process with a streamlined Windows stub installer, improvements to address bar functionality, simplification of printing from Reader Mode (desktop), and the option for accessibility settings to respect the system's set font size when displaying web pages (Android). This is also the last version to support Android Ice Cream Sandwich.[307][308]

    Firefox 56 was released on September 28, 2017 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions are: a new layout for the "Preferences" page, the launch of Firefox Screenshots, support for address form autofill, hardware acceleration for AES-GCM, update of the Safe Browsing protocol to version 4, improved security or verifying update downloads (desktop), improvement of support for WebExtensions, and the end of support for Adobe Flash (Android). Starting with this version, Android support is exclusively for Android Jelly Bean and above.[309][310]

    Another change was the introduction of the mozlz4 format, a proprietary variant of the lz4 compression format (.mozlz4 and .jsonlz4 file extensions instead of .json.lz4 as per unix/linux standard). Session data is stored in the lz4 format instead of plain text. Firefox 56 cannot recognize the legacy plain text session files, only the lz4-encoded ones.

    Firefox 57 was released on November 14, 2017 for desktop and Android with the name Firefox Quantum.[311] ZDNet dubbed it a "comeback" following years of falling market share against Google Chrome.[312][313] The release included a new interface design, codenamed "Photon", and a new rendering engine almost twice as fast as the previous one used.[311][312][314] One of the largest visual changes in Photon was the removal of the search box from the address bar. Firefox 57 no longer supports legacy add-ons using XUL technologies.[315][316][317] That same day, Mozilla announced that Google would be the default search engine in the US and Canada, a departure from Yahoo, which had been the default search engine in the US and Canada since 2014.[318]

    Firefox 58 was released on January 23, 2018 for desktop and Android. Among the additions were: support for credit card autofill, the drop of support for user profiles in previous versions of Firefox, a warning to alert users and site owners of planned security changes to sites affected by the gradual distrust plan for the Symantec certificate authority (desktop), full screen bookmark management with folder support, support for FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) playback, the ability to change the status bar color in themes, and removal of the Firefox Search widget from the home screen (Android).[319][320]

    Firefox 59 was released on March 13, 2018 for desktop and Android. Among the additions were: faster load times and improved graphics, improved Real-Time Communications (RTC) capabilities, additional features for Firefox Screenshots, support for W3C specs for pointer events, Private Browsing Mode's removal of path information from referrers to prevent cross-site tracking (desktop), and the addition of Firefox as an Assist app, support for HLS (HTTP Live Streaming) playback for improved compatibility with video sites, and removal of the "about:" page.[321][322]

    Release history of Firefox 52–59
    Firefox 60 through 67
    Firefox 60 and Firefox 60 ESR were released on May 9, 2018 for desktop (both) and Android (no ESR). It includes a policy engine that allows customized Firefox deployments in enterprise environments, using Windows Group Policy or a cross-platform JSON file, enhancements to New Tab / Firefox Home, a redesigned Cookies and Site Storage section in Preferences for greater clarity and control of first- and third-party cookies, the application of Quantum CSS to render browser UI, support for Web Authentication API, which allows USB tokens for website authentication, an option for Linux users to show or hide page titles in a bar at the top of the browser, improved WebRTC audio performance and playback for Linux users (desktop), exclusive support for extensions built using the WebExtension API (ESR), the implementation of Quantum CSS (also known as Stylo) in Android for faster page rendering; and the addition of the View Page Source option to the Page Action menu (Android).[377][378][379]

    Firefox 61 was released on June 26, 2018 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: Improvements for dark theme support across the entire Firefox user interface, added support to allow WebExtensions to hide tabs, improved bookmark syncing, convenient access to more search engines (desktop), improved security and enhanced performances (both), and the fix for a recurring crash on Samsung Galaxy S8 devices running Android Oreo (Android).[380][381]

    Firefox 62 was released on September 5, 2018 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: FreeBSD support for WebAuthn, a preference that allows users to distrust certificates issued by Symantec in advance of removing all trust for Symantec-issued certificates in Firefox 63, improved graphics rendering for Windows users without accelerated hardware using Parallel-Off-Main-Thread Painting, CSS Variable Fonts (OpenType Font Variations) support, support for CSS Shapes, allowing for richer web page layouts (desktop), improved scrolling performance, faster page load times over Wi-Fi connections by loading from the network cache if disk cache is slow, and "Product and feature tips" toggle in Notifications settings (Android).[382][383] The bookmarks' Description field was deprecated and will be removed completely in future releases.

    Firefox 63 was released on October 23, 2018 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions and changes were: Performance and visual improvements for Windows and macOS users, content blocking, WebExtensions running in their own process in Linux, recognition of the operating system accessibility setting for reducing animation, the addition of Amazon and Google as Top Sites tiles on the Firefox Home (New Tab) page, the removal of the "Never Check for Updates" option from "about:preferences" and "Open in Sidebars" feature from the Library (desktop), support for Picture-In-Picture video, and use of notification channels (Android).[384][385]

    Firefox 64 version 64.0 was released on December 11, 2018 for desktop only. Firefox 64 for desktop provides better recommendations, enhanced tab management, easier performance management, improved performance for Mac and Linux users by enabling link time optimization (Clang LTO), more seamless sharing on Windows, the option to remove add-ons using the context menu on their toolbar buttons, TLS certificates issued by Symantec that are no longer trusted by Firefox, and the availability of WebVR on macOS.[386] Three days later, version 64.0.1 was released for Android only. Firefox 64 for Android provides faster and more responsive scrolling and fixes for performance lags for users with installed password manager apps and an issue that resulted in the loading indicator using too much of the CPU and power.[387]

    Firefox 65 was released on January 29, 2019 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions and changes were: improved performance and web compatibility, with support for the WebP image format; enhanced security for macOS, Linux, and Android users via stronger stack smashing protection which is now enabled by default for all platforms (both desktop and Android); enhanced tracking protection; updated language settings in Preferences; support for Handoff on macOS; a better video streaming experience for Windows users; easier performance management; an improved pop-up blocker; the availability of Firefox for Windows with 32- and 64-bit MSI installers for easier enterprise deployments; additional support for Flexbox (desktop); and the restoration of Chromecast controls to the location bar (Android).[388][389]

    Firefox 66 was released on March 19, 2019 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions and changes were: Prevention of websites from automatically playing sound, smoother scrolling (both), an improved search experience and performance and better user experience for extensions, the addition of basic support for macOS Touch Bar and of support for Windows Hello on Windows 10, the enabling of AV1 support on 32-bit Windows and MacOS (desktop), and the addition of support to open files from external storage, such as an SD card (Android).[390][391]

    Firefox 67 was released on May 21, 2019 for both desktop and Android. Among the many additions and changes were: Lowering priority of setTimeout during page load; suspending unused tabs; the ability to block known cryptominers and fingerprinters in the Custom settings of the Content Blocking preferences; improvement of keyboard accessibility; usability and security improvements in Private Browsing; protection against running older versions of the browser which can lead to data corruption and stability issues (desktop); a new Firefox search widget with voice input; and removal of the Guest Session feature to streamline user experience (Android).[392][393]

    Release history of Firefox 60–67
    Firefox 68 through 77
    Logo used from Firefox 70
    Logo used from Firefox 70
    Firefox 68 and Firefox 68 ESR were released on July 9, 2019 for desktop (both) and Android (no ESR). Among the many additions were: Expansion of Dark Mode in Reader view, a new reporting feature in about:addons, cryptomining and fingerprinting protections, WebRender for Windows 10, Windows Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) update download support (desktop), user and enterprise added certificates read from the OS by default (68 ESR), improved web page painting performance by avoiding redundant calculations during paint, and introduction of WebAuthn (the Web Authentication API; Android).[449][450][451]

    Firefox 68.1 was released on September 3, 2019 for Android only, with the addition of on-by-default Enhanced Tracking Protection, which enabled users to benefit from protections against ad, social, and analytics trackers.[452]

    Firefox 69 was released on September 3, 2019 for desktop only. Among the additions were: Enhanced Tracking Protection; the Block Autoplay feature; support for the Web Authentication HmacSecret extension via Windows Hello for versions of Windows 10 May 2019 or newer; support for receiving multiple video codecs; JIT support for ARM64; and improvements for download UI, performance (Windows 10), and battery life (macOS).[453]

    Firefox 68.2 was released on October 22, 2019 for Android only, gaining the ability to sign in to a Firefox account from the onboarding experience as well as from the new tab page, and resolving a crash in the "Welcome" screen.[454]

    Firefox 70 was released on October 22, 2019 for desktop only. Among the additions were: more privacy protection from Enhanced Tracking Protection; more security protection from Firefox Lockwise; improvements to core engine components for better browsing on more sites; a stand-alone Firefox account menu for easy access to Firefox services like Monitor and Send; the dark mode preference for built-in Firefox pages; and inactive CSS.[455]

    Firefox 68.3 was released on December 3, 2019 for Android only, gaining the updates to improve performance and stability.[456]

    Firefox 71 was released on December 3, 2019 for desktop only. Among the additions were: improvements to the integrated password manager Lockwise; more information about Enhanced Tracking Protection in action; picture-in-picture for Windows; and native MP3 decoding on Windows, Linux, and macOS.[457]

    Firefox 68.4 was released on January 7, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security fixes.[458]

    Firefox 72 was released on January 7, 2020 for desktop only. Among the additions were: the replacement of notification request pop-ups; the ETP blocking fingerprinting scripts by default; the availability of picture-in-picture video for macOS and Linux; and the removal of support for blocking images from individual domains because of low usage and poor user experience.[459]

    Firefox 68.5 was released on February 11, 2020 for Android only, updating messaging card on the homescreen to inform users about upcoming releases and gaining various security and stability fixes.[460]

    Firefox 73 was released on February 11, 2020 for desktop only. Among the additions were: a page zoom feature for more than a decade that allows users to set the zoom level on a per-site basis, a "readability backplate" solution which places a block of background color between the text and background image, improved audio quality when playing back audio at a faster or slower speed, a prompt to save logins if a field in a login form was modified, and rolling out WebRender to laptops with Nvidia graphics cards with drivers newer than 432.00, and screen sizes smaller than 1920x1200.[461]

    Firefox 68.6 was released on March 10, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security and stability fixes.[462]

    Firefox 74 was released on March 10, 2020 for desktop only. Additions included: improvement of login management with the ability to reverse alpha sort (Name Z-A) in Lockwise; simple importing of bookmarks and history from Microsoft Edge on Windows and Mac; use of Add-ons Manager to remove add-ons installed by external applications; Facebook Container, which prevents Facebook from tracking across the web; and support for mDNS ICE.[463] Initially, this release was also the first with TLS 1.0 and 1.1 disabled. However, out of concern for access to information during the concurrent pandemic, this change was rolled back.[464]

    Firefox 68.7 was released on April 7, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security and stability fixes.[465]

    Firefox 75 was released on April 7, 2020 for desktop only. Additions included: a number of improvements with Firefox's revamped address bar; the local cache of all trusted Web PKI Certificate Authority certificates known to Mozilla; the availability of Firefox in Flatpak on Linux; and the integration of Direct Composition on Windows.[466]

    Firefox 68.8 was released on May 5, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security and stability fixes.[467]

    Firefox 76 was released on May 5, 2020 for desktop only. Additions included: strengthened protections for online account logins and passwords, with innovative approaches to managing accounts during this critical time; allowing multitasking in Picture-in-Picture; support for Audio Worklets that will allow more complex audio processing like VR and gaming on the web; and two updates to the address bar improving its usability and visibility.[468]

    Firefox 68.9 was released on June 2, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security and stability fixes.[469]

    Firefox 77 was released on June 2, 2020 for desktop only. Additions included: pocket recommendations on Firefox' new tab for UK users; a new about:certificate page; and the removal of the browser.urlbar.oneOffSearches preference.[470]

    Firefox 68.10 was released on June 30, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security and stability fixes.[471]

    Firefox 68.11 was released on July 27, 2020 for Android only, gaining various security and stability fixes. With the first stable release of Firefox Daylight (Fenix), Firefox 68.11 is the last release for Firefox for Android codenamed Fennec.[472]

    Release history of Firefox 68–77
    Firefox 78 through 90
    Firefox 78 and Firefox 78 ESR were released on June 30, 2020 for desktop. Among the many additions were: the Protections Dashboard, the addition of the Refresh button to the Uninstaller, a new WebRender rolled out to Windows users with Intel GPUs, the addition of Pocket Recommendations to users in the UK, the requirement of GNU libc 2.17, libstdc++ 4.8.1 and GTK+ 3.14 or newer versions on Linux, the disabling of TLS 1.0 and 1.1 and other improvements; and the addition of Kiosk Mode, client certificates, Service Worker and Push APIs, the Block Autoplay feature, picture-in-picture support, and the management of web certificates in about:certificate in 78 ESR.[509][510]

    Firefox 79 was released on July 28, 2020 for desktop, and on August 27 for Android. Among the many additions were: a new WebRender rolled out to Windows users with Intel and AMD GPUs, the addition of Pocket Recommendations to users in Germany, the fixes for several crashes while using a screen reader, and updates to the password policy (desktop); the enabling of Enhanced Tracking Protection by default, the ability to switch to Dark Mode, and video multitasking with Picture-in-Picture mode (Android).[511][512]

    Firefox 80 was released on August 25, 2020 for desktop, and on August 31 for Android. Among the many additions were: the setting as the default system PDF viewer; the new add-ons blocklist enabled to improve performance and scalability; support for RTX and Transport-cc for improved call quality in poor network conditions and better bandwidth estimation and better compatibility with many websites using WebRTC (desktop); and the return of the Back button (Android).[513][514]

    Firefox 81 was released on September 22, 2020 for desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: the ability to pause or play audio or video right from the keyboard or headset; the introduction of the Alpenglow theme; the ability to save, manage, and auto-fill credit card information for U.S. and Canada users; the support of Acroform, which allows users to fill in, print, and save supported PDF forms; the automatic revelation of the Bookmarks toolbar; the expansion of .xml, .svg, and .webp; and fixes for browser native HTML5 audio/video controls (desktop); and the introduction of Firefox Daylight (Android).[515][516]

    Firefox 82 was released on October 20, 2020 for desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: a number of improvements that make watching videos more delightful; improved performance on both page loads and start up time; saving a webpage to Pocket from the Firefox toolbar (desktop); the ability to automatically purge cookies from sites not visited in 30 days; and better support for opening links in Firefox from third-party apps (Android).[517][518]

    Firefox 83 was released on November 17, 2020 for desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: significant updates to SpiderMonkey and JavaScript engine and replacement of the part of the JavaScript engine that helps to compile and display websites for the user; the introduction of the HTTPS-Only Mode; the support of pinch zooming for users with Windows touchscreen devices and touchpads on Mac devices; support of keyboard shortcuts for fast forwarding and rewinding videos in Picture-in-Picture; improved user interface; improved functionality and design for a number of Firefox search features; support of Acroform (desktop); and newly supported add-ons: FoxyProxy, Bitwarden, AdGuard AdBlocker, Tomato Clock, LeechBlock NG, Web Archives, and Ghostery (Android).[519][520]

    Firefox 84 was released on December 15, 2020 for desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: native support for macOS devices built with Apple Silicon CPUs; the rollout of WebRender to MacOS Big Sur, Windows devices with Intel Gen 6 GPUs, and Intel laptops running Windows 7 and 8, and an accelerated rendering pipeline for Linux/GNOME/X11 users for the first time; the use of more modern techniques for allocating shared memory on Linux, improving performance and increasing compatibility with Docker (desktop); the option to view open tabs side by side in a grid view; the ability to delete downloaded files within the app; the rollout of WebRender to more users on the Mali-G GPU series; and improvement of scrolling accuracy and control and fix of cases of unexpected scroll acceleration (Android).[521][522]

    Firefox 85 was released on January 26, 2021 for desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: protection from supercookies, a type of tracker that can stay hidden in the browser and track users online, even after they have cleared cookies; the ability to save and access bookmarks more easily; the ability of the password manager to have users remove all their saved logins with one click, as opposed to having to delete each login individually; the removal of Adobe Flash support; and added support for the :focus-visible pseudo class (desktop).[523][524]

    Firefox 86 was released on February 23, 2021 for desktop and Android. Among the many additions were: added support for simultaneously watching multiple videos in Picture-in-Picture; improved Print functionality with a cleaner design and better integration with the computer's printer settings; credit card management and auto-fill for users in Canada; notable performance and stability improvements achieved by moving canvas drawing and WebGL drawing to the GPU process; the removal of DTLS 1.0 support or establishing WebRTC's PeerConnections (desktop), and the introduction of Total Cookie Protection to Strict Mode (both).[525][526]

    Firefox 87 was released on March 23, 2021 for desktop only. Among the many additions and removals were: the addition of SmartBlock, which provides stand-in scripts so that websites load properly; the new default HTTP Referrer policy; the improved "Highlight All" feature feature on Find in Page; full support for macOS built-in screen reader, VoiceOver; the disabling of the Backspace key as a navigation shortcut for the back navigation button; and the removal of Synced tabs, Recent highlights, and Pocket list from the Library menu.[527]

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    Anja Mauer
    Councillor for the Federation of Istkalen.


  • EU

    Folks, you can't do this! It's illegal, you can't do it!

    The law says, and I quote, OK, I am quoting this: "Should the European Commission decide to grant a Sanction Request, the Premier Commissioner shall propose a Sanction motion to the European Council."

    And where is the sanction request for this? There isn't a new one. It's the same illegal one from last time. You can't do this off an illegal sanction request, OK, that's crazy. I'm a businessman, that's what I do, and if you tried that you'd get sued so hard your head would spin.

    There needs to be a new, legal sanction request, and the Commission needs to look at it legally, before this thing comes back here. If you want to tell us what to do with our beautiful fluorspar, then you need to do it legally, OK?

    Cllr Dragan Trympov


  • EU

    Credit to the editors of Wikipedia

    Anja Mauer spoke again. "I have several amendments to present; however, I have further comments to present regarding this legislation. The comments, of course, first; then the amendments."

    "After the fall of Acre in 1291, there was a significant push for a new Crusade to retake the Holy Land. Histories written after that time have typically combined a chronology with proposals for additional Crusades. This period also saw the rise of knighthood and the notion of chivalry.

    William of Tudela. William of Tudela (fl. 1199-1214), also known as Guillaume de Tudèle, a poet who wrote in Old Occitan of the Albigensian Crusade of 1209–1229.[8]

    Canso de la Crozada or Song of the Albigensian Crusade (13th century).[9] Translation by Janet Shirley in Crusade Texts in Translation, Volume 2
    Jean Pierre Sarrasin. Jean Pierre Sarrasin (died 1275), chamberlain to Louis IX of France.[10]

    Lettres françaises du XIIIe siècle. Letters from the Seventh Crusade.[11]
    Primat of Saint-Denis. Primat of Saint-Denis (died between 1277–1285), a Benedictine monk and historian.[12]

    Roman des rois (1274). The Roman des rois (Romance of Kings) was written in Old French and provides a detailed account of the reign of Louis IX of France. Roman des rois was the earliest version of the Grandes Chroniques de France.[13]
    La Chronique (after 1335). Latin version of Roman des rois covering only the years 1248–1277. Transcribed by French monk and translator Jean de Vignay.[13]
    La Devise des Chemins de Babiloine. An anonymous account detailing the strengths of Mamluk armies in Egypt and Syria and gave mileages of the various routes between Cairo and the Delta ports. Prepared as an intelligence report in preparation for a future Crusade to be launched against Mamluk Cairo.[14]

    La Devise des Chemins de Babiloine (1289–1291). In Itinéraires à Jérusalem et descriptions de la Terre Sainte...(1882) by French historian Henri-Victor Michelant.[15]
    The Devise des Chemins de Babilione redated (1994). By British historian Robert Irwin. In The Military Orders, Volume I: Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick, edited by British medieval historian Malcolm Barber.[16]
    Fidentius of Padua. Fidentius of Padua (before 1226 – after 1291), a Franciscan friar and historian.[17]

    Liber recuperations Terre Sancte (1291). A history of the Holy Land and approaches to retaking the Kingdom of Jerusalem, delivered to pope Nicholas IV. Liber also included an adverse biography of the Prophet Muhammad. In Biblioteca bio-bibliografica della Terra Santa e dell'Oriente francescano, Volume 2, edited by Girolamo Golubovich.[18]
    Thaddeus of Naples. Thaddeus of Naples (fl. 1291), an Italian magister.[19][20]

    Hystoria de desolacione civitatis Acconensis (1292). A history based on eyewitness accounts of the fall of Acre of 1291, embroidered by accusations of widespread cowardice. His violent language was intentional, and the object was to shame the West into launching a new Crusade. The work ended with an appeal to the Pope, to the princes, and to the faithful to rescue the Holy Land as the Christians' heritage
    Hystoria de desolacione et conculcacione civitatis Acconensis et tocius Terre Sancte, in A. D. 1291 (1874). Edited by Comte Paul E. D. Riant.[21]
    Jacques Bretel. Jacques Bretel (fl. 1285), a French-language trouvère.[22][23]

    Le Tournoi de Chauvency, 2 volumes (1 + supplement) (1285). A poem concerning the Tournament of Chauvency. Held in 1285 by Louis V, Count of Chiny, the famed tournament brought together nearly 500 knights from around Europe. Participants included Rudolf I of Germany, Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine and Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders. A modern, however fanciful, description of the tournament can be found in The Reign of Chivalry by British historian Richard Barber.[24]
    Roman de Castelain de Couci et de la dame de Fayel (13th century). A romantic poem using the cœur mangé motif, sometimes attributed to the 13th-century trouvère Jakemés. (cf. French Wikipedia, Roman du châtelain de Coucy et de la dame du Fayel)[25]
    Galvano of Levanti. Galvano of Levanti (fl. late 13th century), a physician in the papal court of Boniface VIII (1294–1303) and a propagandist.

    Liber Sancti Passagii Christocolarum contra Saracenos pro recuperatione Terra Sanctae (1295). A work dedicated to Philip IV of France that called for a new Crusade. Galvano was influenced by Thaddeus of Naples' account of the fall of Acre.
    Ramon Lull. Ramon Lull (1232/1236–1315), also known as Raymond Lully or Ramon Llull, a Spanish missionary to the Arab world. Lull was stoned to death in Tunisia in 1315.[26][27][28]

    Le Libre del Orde de Cauayleria (1279–1283). Lull's account of the order of chivalry is translated to The book of the Ordre of chyualry, by English writer William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) and appears as Volume 168 of the Early English Text Society (EETS).[29]
    Petitio pro recuperatione Terrae Sanctae (1295). A document presented to pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303) proposing a new Crusade and the combining the military orders into a single organization. This was a follow-up to Petitio Raymundi pro conversione infidelium (1294) presented to pope Celestine V (1294).
    Liber de Fine (1305). An elaboration of Petitio pro recuperatione Terrae Sanctae.
    Raymundi Lulli Opera (1598).[30] Edited by Heinrich C. A. von Nettesheim.
    Raimond Lulle, in Histoire littéraire de la France, Tome XXIX (1895). A biographical account edited by French historian Jean-Barthélemy Hauréau.[31]
    Le Bienheureux Raymond Lulle (1232-1315) (1900). A biography by French historian Marius André (1868–1927).[32]
    Guillaume de Nangis. Guillaume de Nangis (died 1300), a French chronicler and biographer, particularly of Louis IX of France and Phillip III of France.[33][34][35]

    Chronicon (1300). A chronicle of the history of the world from the Creation until 1300. For the period before 1113, the work is that of the medieval author Sigebert of Gembloux (1030–1112) among others. It also borrows from La Chronique by Benedictine monk and historian Primat of Saint-Denis. A continuation to 1368 was done by Prior Jean de Venette.[36]
    Vie et vertus de Saint Louis d'après Guillaume de Nangis et le confesseur de la reine Marguerite (1877). A version of Nangis' Vie et vertus de Saint Louis, edited by French historian René de Lespinasse.[37]
    Mémoire sur les ouvrages de Guillaume de Nangis (1873). A commentary on the works of Nangis by French historian Léopold V. Delisle.[38]
    Pierre Dubois. Pierre Dubois (1255–1321), a French publicist and propagandist.[39][40]

    De Recuperatione Terre Sancte (1304). A work proposing the recovery of the Holy Land using the wealth of the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller.[41]
    Hayton of Corycus. Hayton of Corycus (1240–1310/1320), also known as Hethum of Gorigos, an Armenian noble and historian.[42]

    La Flor des estoires de la terre d'Orient (1307). The Flower of the Histories of the East is found in RHC Documents arméniens (1869–1906), Volume 2.II, and concerns the Muslim conquests and Mongol invasion. It contains a summary of Levantine history, together with a discussion of the state of the Mamluk sultanate. Hayton proposed a double expedition and co-operation with the Armenians and the Mongols.
    Table Chronologique des Evénement en Syrie, Palestine et Arménie de 1076 à 1307 (1307). In RHC Documents arméniens (1869–1906).
    Jacques de Molay. Jacques de Molay (1240–1314), last Grand Master of the Knights Templar.[43]

    Report to Clement V (1306). A report to pope Clement V recommending against the merging of the Templars and Hospitallers. Reprinted in Étienne Baluze's Vitae Paparum Avenionensium.[44]
    Guillaume Adam. Guillaume Adam (died 1341), a missionary to and later archbishop of Soltaniyeh, Persia.[45][46]

    De modo Sarracenos extirpandi (1316–1317). An account detailing his approach for the West to defeat the Byzantine empire and the Ilkhanids.
    Directorium ad passagium faciendum (1330). A treatise that proposed a crusade, presented to Philip VI of France (1328–1350), that may have been written by G. Adam. In RHC Documents arméniens, Volume 2.IV.
    Guy of Warwick. Guy of Warwick (Gui de Warewic), a legendary English hero popular in England and France from the thirteenth to seventeenth centuries. He is reputed to have made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and is erroneously regarded as real in some fifteenth-century chronicles, including that by English historian John Rous.[47][48][49][50]

    Guy of Warwick: a knight of Britain who in his day did many deeds of prowess's (1525).[51]
    Fragments of an early fourteenth-century Guy of Warwick.[52]
    The noble and renowned history of Guy, earl of Warwick (1829). Containing a full and true account of his many famous and valiant actions, and renowned victories.[53]
    Fourteenth century
    The Crusaders maintained a presence in the Holy Land until the fall of Ruad in 1302 and much of the historical work was then concentrated on the Kingdom of Cyprus, the military orders and the Mongol invasion of Europe, and renewed plans for a new Crusade to retake Jerusalem. Significant portions of the Recueil des historiens des croisades (RHC), Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (PPTS) library and Francesco Gabrieli's Arab historians of the Crusades are devoted to works from the 14th century.[54]

    Gérard de Monréal. Gérard de Monréal (fl. 1314–1321), secretary to Guillaume de Beaujeu, Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1273–1291. Monréal is believed to have written the later part of Les Gestes des Chiprois (Deeds of the Cypriots), an Old French chronicle of the history of the Crusader states and Kingdom of Cyprus between 1132–1311.[55][56]

    Les Gestes des Chiprois, 3 parts in 1 volume (1314–1321). A history of the Crusades in three parts: (1) Chronique de Terre Sainte (anonymous author) covering the period from 1131–1222; (2) History of the War between the Emperor Frederick and Sir John of Ibelin, covering the period 1223–1242, by Italian historian Philip of Novara (1200–1270); (3) Chronique du Templier de Tir, covering the Crusades through 1311. The work includes one of only two eyewitness accounts of the fall of Acre in 1291 and the trial of the Knights Templar in 1311.[57][58]
    Les gestes des Chiprois: recueil de chroniques françaises écrites en Orient au XIIIe & XVIe siècles (1887). Translation for the Société de l'Orient latin by French historian and philologist Gaston Raynaud (1850–1911). Raynaud's version of Les gestes des Chiprois is found in both RHC Documents arméniens (1869–1906), Volume 2.VI, and Revue de l'Orient Latin (ROL), Volumes XIIIe, XIVe.[59][60]
    Jean de Joinville. Jean de Joinville (1224–1317), a French chronicler who accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade and Eighth Crusade who wrote his influential biography.[61][62]

    Life of Saint Louis (1309), a biography of Louis IX, relying on the Grandes Chroniques de France for events after 1254. Joinville was with Louis during his captivity by the Egyptians in 1250 after the battle of al-Mansurah. Reprinted in Bohn's Libraries.[63]
    Memoirs of the Crusades (1955). Translation by British biographer Frank T. Marzials. Consists of the chronicle De la Conquête de Constantinople of Geoffrey of Villehardouin and Joinville's Life of Saint Louis.[64]
    Rashid-al-Din. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1247–1318), a Jewish-turned-Islamic physician and historian who was vizier to the Ilkhan Ghazan.[65]

    Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh (Compendium of Chronicles) is a history of the Mongols from the time of Adam until 1311. The books include History of the Mongols, regarding the Khanate conquests from Genghis Khan through that of Ghazan. They also include the History of the Franks through 1305, based on sources such as Italian explorer Isol the Pisan (fl. 1300) and the Chronicon pontificum et imperatorum of Martin of Opava. The third part of geography has been lost.[66][67]
    A Compendium of Chronicles: Rashid al-Din's Illustrated History of the World (1995). Edition by American art historian Sheila Blair.[68]
    Foulques de Villaret. Foulques de Villaret (died 1327), Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller from 1305–1319.[69]

    La Devise des Chemins de Babiloine (1306–1307). A document prepared for Foulques de Villaret providing an assessment of Mamluk forces, as research for a possible invasion. When the document was written in 1306–1307, al-Nasir Muhammad was the sultan of Egypt and Syria.[70]
    Mémoire de Foulques de Villaret sur la croisade (1312). At the time of the Council of Vienne in 1311-1312, Foulques wrote to Philip IV of France of the Hospitaller's preparation for any future crusade.[71]
    Peter of Dusburg. Peter of Dusburg (died after 1326), a German historian and chronicler of the Teutonic Knights.[72]

    Chronicon terrae Prussiae (1326). A chronicle of the Teutonic Order and their role in the Northern Crusades.[73]
    Jean de Vignay. Jean de Vignay (c. 1282/1285 – c. 1350), a French monk and translator.[74][75]

    De la chose de la chevalerie. On the Matter of Chivalry, a translation of De re militari of Roman writer Vegetius (fl. fourth century).
    Les merveilles de la Terre d'Outremer (after 1331). A translation of the Descriptio orientalium partium of Franciscan pilgrim Odoric of Pordenone (1286–1331).[76]
    Le Miroir historial (1333). A translation of the Speculum historiale of French Dominican Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1184/1194 – c. 1264).
    La Légende dorée (1333 or 1334), a translation of the Legenda aurea (Golden Legends) of Italian chronicler James of Varagine (c. 1230 – 1298).[77]
    La Chronique (after 1335). Latin version of Roman des rois by Benedictine monk and historian Primat of Saint-Denis (died between 1277–1285), a detailed account of the reign of Louis IX of France.
    John VI Kantakouzenos. John VI Kantakouzenos (1292-1383), was Byzantine emperor from 1347–1354.[78]

    Historia (after 1341) that includes an account of Godfrey of Bouillon's arrival in Constantinople in 1096, in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae (CSHB) Volumes 5-7.[79]
    Against Mohammedanism (after 1341). In Historia.
    Hamd-Allah Mustawfi. Hamd-Allah Mustawfi (1281-1349), a Persian historian and geographer. Also known as Hamd-Allah Mustawfi Qazvini.[80]

    Ḏayl-e Tāriḵ-e gozida (after 1329). A compendium of world history from Creation until 1329, dedicated to the son of Rashid-al-Din Hamadani.[81]
    Nozhat al-qolub (1340). A work on geography that may be derived from Rashid-al-Din's lost work.
    Histoire des Seldjoukides et des Ismaéliens ou assassins de l'Iran (1849). Extracts from Ḏayl-e Tāriḵ-e gozida, translated by Charles Defrémery (1822–1883). A history of Persia under the Seljuk dynasty and the Assassins. The Seljuks originated in 985, with the sultans beginning with Tughril (1039–1063) and ending with Toghril III (1174–1194). The Assassins began under Hassan-i Sabbah (1050–1124) and were eradicated by the Mongols in 1256.[82]
    Geoffroi de Charny. Geoffroi de Charny (1300–1356), a French knight and author. De Charny and his wife are the first recorded owners of the Shroud of Turin, lost after the sack of Constantinople in 1204.[83][84][85]

    Book of Chivalry (Livre de chevalerie) (c. 1350). A treatise intended to explain the appropriate qualities for a knight, reform the behavior of the fighting classes, and defend the chivalric ethos against its critics, mainly in clerical circles.[86]
    Guillaume de Machaut. Guillaume de Machaut (1300–1377), an influential French poet and composer.[87][88][89]

    La Prise d'Alexandre (after 1369). An account of the campaign of Peter I of Cyprus, titular king of Jerusalem, against Egypt during the Alexandrian Crusade of 1365. The edition of 1887 was edited by French historian Louis de Mas Latrie (1815–1897)[90]
    Informatio ex parte Nunciorum Regis Cypri. Informatio ex parte Nunciorum Regis Cypri is an anonymously written history of Cyprus through the 14th century including an account of Henry II of Cyprus, the last crowned king of Jerusalem, and his plans to retake the Holy Land from the Mongols. It is included in Documents and Histoire de l'île de Chypre sous le règne des princes de la maison de Lusignan by French historian Louis de Mas Latrie.[91]

    Ibn al-Furat. Ibn al-Furat (1334–1405), an Egyptian historian.[92]

    Taʾrīkh al-duwal wa 'l-mulūk (History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms), 11 volumes (15th century). A universal history for which only the portions after 1106 were completed.
    Negotiations with Hugh III, King of Jerusalem and Cyprus. Material concerning Hugh III of Cyprus, excerpted and translated from Taʾrīkh al-duwal wa 'l-mulūk.[93]
    Nicephorus Gregoras. Nicephorus Gregoras (1295–1360), a Byzantine theologian and historian.[94][95]

    Byzantine History (Histoire de Byzance), 37 volumes (after 1359). A history covering the years 1204–1359, continuing the work of Greek historian Georgius Pachymeres (1242 – c. 1310). In RHC Historiens grecs (1875–1881), Volume 1.V, and Patrologia Graeco-Latina (MPG), Volumes 148 (Books 1–24) and 149 (Books 25–37).[96][97]
    Guillaume Durand. Guillaume Durand (1267–1328/1330) was bishop of Mende. Durand was sent as an embassy by pope John XXII and Charles IV of France to the Ottoman sultan Orhan (1326–1360) in order to obtain more favourable conditions for the Latins in Syria.[98][99]

    De modo celebrandi concilii et corruptelis, 3 volumes (1311). Written for pope Clement V, who later issued papal bull Vox in excelso.
    Informatio brevis de Passagio futuro (1312). A treatise on a possible Crusade to the Holy Land. In Histoire littéraire de la France, Tome XXXV.[100]
    Jean Dardel. Jean Dardel (fl. 1375–1383), a French friar who was an advisor to Leo V of Armenia.[101][102]

    Chronique d'Arménie. A chronicle of Armenian history that covers through the 14th century. In RHC Documents arméniens (1906), Volume 2.I.
    Eustache Deschamps. Eustache Deschamps (1346–1407), a French poet.[103][104][105]

    Deschamps' Poems and the Crusade. In The Crusade of Nicopolis (1934) by Egyptian Coptologist Aziz S. Atiya.[106]
    Nicephoros Callistus. Nicephoros Callistus (Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos) (c. 1256 – c. 1335), a Greek ecclesiastical historian.[107][108]

    Historia Ecclesiastica, 18 books (c. 1330). A history down to 610, heavily dependent on his predecessors including Eusebius and Socrates.[109]
    Lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople (date unknown)
    Poem on the capture of Jerusalem in 1187 (date unknown).
    Ibn Khaldūn. 'Abd al-Raḥmār ibn Khaldūn (before 1337 – 1406), an Arab scholar of Islam, social scientist and historian, who has been described as the father of the modern discipline of historiography.[110][111]

    Kitāb al-ʻIbar, 7 volumes (1337), Book of Lessons, Record of Beginnings and Events in the History of the Arabs and the Berbers and Their Powerful Contemporaries. Includes three parts: al-Muqaddimah (Prolegomena), a universal history of empires; A world history of events up to 1337; and Historiography of works from Arabic Africa.[112]
    Al-Nuwayrī. Muḥammad ibn al-Ḳāsim al-Nuwayrī al-Iskandarānī al-Māliki (fl. 1365–1373) also known as al-Nuwayrī, a Muslim historian from Alexandria, Egypt. Eyewitness to the Alexandrian Crusade of 1365.[113][114]

    Kitāb al-Ilmām fīmā jarat bihi ʾl-aḥkām al-maḳḍiyya fī wāḳiʿat al-Iskandariyya , 6 volumes (between 1365–1374). A history of the city from the time of Alexander the Great and Aristotle through the Alexandrian Crusade and as late as 1374. Edited by Coptic historian Aziz S. Atiya and Swiss Egyptologist Étienne Combe in an edition published in 7 volumes (1968–1976).[115]
    Leontios Machairas. Leontios Machairas (1360/1380 – after 1432), a Cypriot historian.[116]

    Kronika (Chronicle) covering the history of Cyprus from the visit of Saint Helen in the late third century until 1432.[117]
    Recital Concerning the Sweet Land of Cyprus, entitled Chronicle, English translation of Kronika by British archaeologist Richard M. Dawkins (1871–1955).
    The nature of the Cypriot chronicle of Leontios Makhairas (1945). Account by Richard M. Dawkins.[118]
    Badr al-Din al-Ayni. Badr al-Din al-Ayni (1360–1453), known as al-Aini, was an Arab Islamic scholar.[119]

    'Iqd al-Jūman fī Ta'rikh Ahl al-Zamán. Original Arabic version of Perles d'Historie.[120]
    Perles d'Historie (The Necklace of Pearls), covering the Ayyubid and Mamluk sultanates from 1226, with most of the early work derived from previous histories. Full title: TheNecklace of Pearls concerning the History of the Peoples of the Time. In RHC Historiens orientaux, Volume 2.1.
    Al-Makrizi. Al-Makrizi (1364–1442), an Egyptian historian, also known as al-Maqrisi, descended from the Fatimids. Wrote extensively on the caliphates and sultanates that ruled the country. Some of his material appears to be based on the works of ibn Muyessar and ibn Abd al-Zahir.[121][122]

    Al-Mawāʻiẓ wa-al-Iʻtibār bi-Dhikr al-Khiṭaṭ wa-al-āthār, 2 volumes. French translation b Egyptoligist Urbain Bouriant as Description topographique et historique de l'Égypte, published from 1895–1900.[123]
    Abhandlung über die in Aegypten eingewanderten arabischen stämme (1847). Translation of Al-Mawāʻiẓ wa-al-Iʻtibār bi-Dhikr al-Khiṭaṭ wa-al-āthār by German orientalist Ferdinand Wüstenfeld.[124]
    History of the Ayyubit and Mameluke Rulers, 2 volumes (1837–1845). Translation by French orientalist Etienne Marc Quatremère.[125]
    Muqaffa. The first sixteen-volumes of an Egyptian biographic encyclopedia. Egyptian historian al-Sakhawi estimated that the complete work would require eighty volumes.
    Philippe de Mézières. Philippe de Mézières (c. 1327 – 1405), a French knight and author. De Mézières travelled to Jerusalem and the Cyprus. In 1362, he traveled with Peter I of Cyprus, titular king of Jerusalem, visiting the princes of western Europe in quest of support for a new Crusade.[126][127][128]

    Vie de Saint Pierre Thomas (1366). Life of saint Peter Thomas (1305–1366), who participated with de Mézières in the Alexandrian Crusade of 1365.[129]
    Nova religio passionis (1367–1368; revised and enlarged in 1386 and 1396). A proposal for a new order of knighthood. Included in The Crusade of Nicopolis by Aziz Suryal Atiya.[106]
    Description de deux manuscrits contenant la règle de la Militia passionis Jhesu Christi de Philippe de Mézières (1881). A description of two works of de Mézières, by French historian Auguste Molinier.[130]
    Philippe de Mézièves et la croisade au XIVe siècle (1896), by Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga. Recounts the Crusade of Amadeus VI of Savoy (1366–1367). In Bibliothèque de l'École des hautes études. Sciences historiques et philologiques, Fascicule 110.[131]
    Jean Froissart. Jean Froissart (c. 1337 – c. 1405), a Belgian medieval author and court historian.[132][133]

    Chronicles of England, France, and the Adjoining Countries, 5 volumes (c. 1400). Known as Froissart's Chronicles. From the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV. Edition translated from the best French editions, with variations and additions from many celebrated manuscripts, edited by Jean-Baptiste de La Curne de Sainte-Palaye and Thomas Johnes.[134]
    Fifteenth century
    The fifteenth-century historical works on the Crusades saw the beginning of anti-Islam sentiments in Western works, with calls for a new crusade (e.g., Jean Germain's works) as well as propaganda by both Christian and Islamic writers. There were also accounts of conflicts of the Military Orders with the Turks, continued travel accounts, and regional chronologies. Several works from the Recueil des historiens des croisades (RHC), including Western, Arabic, and Greek works, can be found here. The first attempts at histories of the Crusades were made through the Itinerario di la Gran Militia and Benedetto Accolt's De Bello a Christianis contra Barbaros...

    Juan de Segovia. Juan de Segovia (1395–1458) was a Castillan theologian who translated the Koran into Latin with the assistance of Islamic scholar ʿĪsā ibn Jābir.[135][136]

    De mittendo gladio in Saracenos (c. 1475), a refutation of the Koran.
    Correspondence with Jean Germain and German philosopher Nicola de Cusa (1401–1464) on the dangers of Islam.[137]
    Jean Germain. Jean Germain (1400–1461), bishop of Nevers from 1430–1436 and bishop of Châlons from 1436-1461. Councilor to Philip the Good and chancellor to the Order of the Golden Fleece. (cf. French Wikipedia, Jean Germain)[138][139]"

    Anja Mauer
    Councillor for the Federation of Istkalen


  • EU

    "Before I introduce my amendments, I would like to begin with some extraordinary and relevant words from the acclaimed author Mrs. Elizyabeth Yanne Strong-Anderson:

    POEM TITLE: *PEOPLE WHO **LIVE **IN **DENIAL?? MUST STOP LIVING IN DENIAL. **BECAUSE THEY HURT OTHER PEOPLE TOO. WRITTEN BY: ELIYZABETH YANNE STRONG-ANDERSON * FEBRUARY 25, 2004 ******************************** *PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN DENIAL?? LIVE A LIFE OF CRIME AND TRIALS????? SOME GET SAVED WITH JESUS. SOME START EVIL AND LEAVE US !! *THESE PEOPLE LIVE LIKE GODSTIME DOES NOT EXIST??? ALWAYS *TAKING *THE *HIDDEN RISK??? *YOU..PEOPLE **WHO **LIVE **IN DENIAL?? *IF YOU DON'T GROW UP: AND STOP THE FALSE WAYS. YOU'LL IN UP:> HURTING OTHER PEOPLE BLESSED DAYS.

    *SO BIRTH CONTROL ALSO LEADS> TO SPIRITUAL DARKNESS AND SPIRITUAL LUST AND SPIRITUAL SINS: WHICH LEADS TO SINFUL TEMPATIONS OF ADULTERY, MALICE, JEALOUCIES, AND BACKSLIDING, BACKBITING AND EVEN FROM THE CHURCHES TRUE HOLINES DOMINIONSHIP LEADERSHIP: RESULTING>IN MANY CHRISTIAN WOMEN AND MAN>TODAY: LIVING> LIKE WORLDLY SINNER MARRIAGES:> TODAY: *BECAUSE > WHEN IT COMES TO BIRTH CONTROL: CONTROLING> HOW MANY CHILDREN WE HAVE YEARLY. WITHOUT THE TRUE AMOUNT OF CHILDREN GOD INTENDED YOU TO HAVE IN YOUR CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE

    *GOD SAITH TO ME: ONE DAY: WHILE:> I WAS WATCHING THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA ON TELEVISION: RECEIVING THE GIFTS OF CONDOMS: FROM CHRISTIAN MINISTRIES : *GOD SAIDTH: *AFTER I ASK GOD: SHOULD WE GIVE AIDS VICTIMS CONDOMS FOR SAFE MARITAL SEX?? **AND GOD SAIDTH: AS CLEAR AS CRYSTAL NO!! >>BUT THE *THE CHRISTIANS: ON TELEVISION WHERE GIVING CONDOMS: FOR SAFE SEX AGAINST THE SPREAD OF AIDS AND HIV VIRUS!! **BECAUSE:> THEY WERE: > TRYING TO STOP THE SPREAD OF THE DISEASES OF AIDS AND HIV VIRUS!! **TRULY I FELT KIND OF ALARM: GOD WOULD SAY NO!! **DON'T GIVE CONDOMS OUT!!

    Now, of course, after those wonderful, appropriate words from Mrs. Strong-Anderson, for the amendments:

    AMENDMENT IX

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo. all state officers of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics involved in its governance.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.

    In the case that this is too much for some, we propose the following amendment:

    AMENDMENT X

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo. all state officers of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics involved in its governance.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable. Member-states with strong cultural reasons to avoid doing so are exempted.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.

    ALternatively, in the case that the list of individuals should not be altered, we propose the following amendments;

    AMENDMENT XI

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.

    And, of course, ffo the amendment X:

    AMENDMENT XII

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable. Member-states with strong cultural reasons to avoid doing so are exempted.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.


  • EU

    Councillors, we are here again debating something and that will do nothing for the Europeans. This is a revenge from certain Councillors and a Commission member against a Coup d'Etat, with no aim of making the Union of Nicoleizian Soviet Republics dissapear peacefully. Before the debate ends, we should all remember military trade agreements with the UNSR are suspended, so what's the point of this when a Council condemnation is in place and covers a wide part of what it is proposed here? Again, personal aims to destroy a regime by using force and rudeness, slandering the European citizens. By the way, Cllr. Tony, this is not about amendments, this is about making a conflict worse or keeping it as it is and make it die by itself.

    I have heard very alarming statements during this debate, like this one from Cllr. Mizrachi-Roscoe: "To support UNSR militarily or even be recognizing them is allowing the principle of fair transfer of power and democracy to be thrown out the window." You cannot give support to a military which agreements with other countries are suspended by a Council condemnation still in place, Councillor; so this statement itself has no real sense at all. But if I keep going through the debate, I find this statement: "Socialism is the opium of this Union, let's put an end to those who started." Cllr. Granger, we all know opium is a drug that dulls the senses and helps one forget the miseries of the present. But in which position do left-leaning parties stay when we are saying this is the house of all the Europeans? I won't be the one that defends Socialists regimes here, but I think that, with democracy within their Government, their measures are respectable and should be respected by every Councillor on this chamber.

    Moving on, we have Cllr. Mauer being herself which adds the humour point we needed on this debate. Ms, Mauer, I know this Act is a joke to you and many more on this chamber, but I think it will be slightly more constructive to propose some amendments like the ones you proposed before my speech. Cllr. Hennderssen, I must agree with you on something: No EU law or Code of Conduct is broken by the actions of Cllr. Mauer, then she shall not be kicked from the house. She can, indeed, do whatever that comes out of her, and sorry to use this very colloquial expression, vagina. And Cllr. Trympov, I think I can also agree with you, which seems surprising to me, but as you said the sanction request is the same illegal one that was withdrawn by the Premier Commissioner, so we can consider the motion failed and a new request should be done. Still, I'm not a judge to say this, so if anybody believes it is illegal and this passes, I encourage him to take this to the European Court of Justice as soon as possible.

    Summing up, the whole proposal could be illegal and it's a pure aim of revenge against a Communist, not Socialist, regime; a slander to the European citizens while we, Councillors and the Premier Commissioner debate if it is appropiate or not to impose the first ever sanction motion to a regime which has been silent during the last months. If someone considers this is a good idea, to turn them active again and make them retaliate on us. We need a single word, diplomacy, and that's what I'll fight for, as Deputy Speaker of this house. Thank you very much, and I call all Councillors to vote against this motion.

    Donald Tusk
    Deputy Speaker and Councillor for Spain


  • ECoJ

    Councilor Tusk, I am not disagreeing with you. Not only will this bill antagonize the UNSR with no benefit, but I find the motivation of this bill beneath the dignity of Europe. We see Councilor Granger calling Socialism "the opioid of Europe" or something like that and we have other Councilors masking their ideological chauvinism in "the UNSR is undemocratic" tap dance. No matter what our opinions of the UNSR are, you all should honestly be ashamed of yourselves to cynically use our institutions in this fashion. At least Councilor Granger was honest in her motivations.

    However, Councilor, perhaps the most pressing issue at hand within this bill is the precedent it sets for what controls Europe has over how nations can conduct business. Without the ability of nations to not even be able to recognize governments and conduct diplomacy, the very notion of Europe being a union of sovereign states is shattered. Sections II and Sections III, in order to secure a Europe where the people determine their own fate, must be removed. Surely even someone like yourself, Councilor Tusk, would not be so willing for your country to give up its sovereignty just like that whenever a Commissioner and a dishonest Councilor pleases?

    Tony Odhinazen
    EU Councilor, Ruthund


  • EU

    Councillor Tony, if I'm sure about something is about my country sovereignty. We all know about tactical voting, and even if I'm supportive about your amendments and I'll vote for them to avoid the worse part of the motion taking place if it passes, I think that even with the removal of these Sections, we should vote against. I hope that, even if some sections are removed with your amendments, Cllr. Tony, you still vote against this massive joke of motion.

    Donald Tusk
    Deputy Speaker and Councillor for Spain


  • ECoJ

    Council Tusk, all I have to say to you is your confidence in the security of your country's sovereignty is misplaced if you think that this bill does not pose a serious threat to every nation's ability to exercise its own sovereignty. It is shocking how much many nations in this Union are willing to give up their own freedom to suppress others' rights to recognize who they please. This isn't a matter of weakening the UNSR, this is a matter of what Europe we want.

    Tony Odhinazen
    EU Councilor, Ruthund


  • ECoJ

    Colleagues, I think that the best approach we should do to end the UNSR crisis is to negotiate with them before we add sanctions. We should approach them diplomatically, but not that we recognize them as a state. The problem with the EU is it's not doing it's best for Icholasen to return back to it's original home and now they're complaining that Copala City's Autonomy had been removed. So what's wrong with the EU? It seems to be trying to expand Icholasen's territory by stealing the territory of it's members. And now they're starting that by not negotiating with the UNSR for a peaceful co-existence and then complaining about the Internal Policies of it's members.

    People, the point here is that the sanctions simply is there to put pressure on the so-called "UNSR". However, we are not giving out demands that they must meet. Technically there's no point of sanctioning them if there's nothing they should exactly do in order to remove the sanctions.

    Yuridiana Yahontov
    Interim Deputy Councilor, Kingdom of Reitzmag


  • EU

    Cllr. Yahontov, I think it's fine and even normal to complain about the removed autonomy of Copala City. Not only because your country has been able to prove the many Copalan secessionist arguments Mr. Maxwells and his cabinet have been giving during these months, but also because Reitzmag first ordered the suspension for a matter of national security which was then handled and exemplary solved by the Copalan Government, but now and taking advantage of these situation, without revocking the measures, they have removed the autonomy of the only territory which was left for the Nicoleizians to governate theirselves! How can you pretend we, Councillors, don't speak about this here in Europe?

    But that's not today's matter, so I won't divert that much from the topic. I agree with you, and this is pretty historical, because I had never agreed with your colleague Cllr. van Allen, that we should approach to them diplomatically, not recognising them as a state though. It is not just the most wise solution to the conflict, but also the most peaceful. Sadly, some countries seem to be against any and all kinds of diplomacy and even against socialist parties, a good time to say in this chamber that the massive arrests in the United Duchies are really concerning, and I hope I can have a private meeting with the Duchian Councillor to talk about them.

    But Deputy Councillor Yahontov, are your feelings for the Nicoleizians really true? At the same time your country offered them a temporary home, Reitzmag was aiming for a military alliance and a Commission vote for Atty. Winston. Now, you say the European Union "seems to be trying to expand Icholasen's territory by stealing the territory of it's members. And now they're starting that by not negotiating with the UNSR for a peaceful co-existence and then complaining about the Internal Policies of it's members." How on Earth can we pretend to believe this absurd statement, Ms. Yahontov? The European Union isn't against anybody, so I ask you to stop spreading conspiracy theories, if we want the Union to finally leave these cumulonimbus of crisis and scandals we have been living here for the last year. The European Union would never try to steal others' territory, and furthermore, I think Reitzmag is guilty about what Reitzmag does, same with any other country here: if you gift a piece of land with several loopholes on a Treaty, it's clear to see what will happen.

    All I'm asking to Reitzmag and of course you, Ms. Yahontov, is very simple: honesty with the Nicoleizian and the Copalan people. They don't deserve to suffer more betrayals, more slanders, but a responsible government being honest to them. I hope that now Mr. Brodges seems to have changed his behaviour, he thinks about this once again.

    Donald Tusk
    Deputy Speaker and Councillor for Spain


  • EU

    Debate is now closed. It is time to vote on amendments. Voting on amendments will last until 22:03 GMT on April 11th, 2021.

    There are 12 amendments, all of them proposed by Cllr. Anja Mauer:

    Amendment I - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    H, or h, is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is aitch (pronounced /ˈeɪtʃ/, plural aitches), or regionally haitch /ˈheɪtʃ/.

    The original Semitic letter Heth most likely represented the voiceless pharyngeal fricative (ħ). The form of the letter probably stood for a fence or posts.

    The Greek eta 'Η' in Archaic Greek alphabets still represented /h/ (later on it came to represent a long vowel, /ɛː/). In this context, the letter eta is also known as heta to underline this fact. Thus, in the Old Italic alphabets, the letter heta of the Euboean alphabet was adopted with its original sound value /h/.

    While Etruscan and Latin had /h/ as a phoneme, almost all Romance languages lost the sound—Romanian later re-borrowed the /h/ phoneme from its neighbouring Slavic languages, and Spanish developed a secondary /h/ from /f/, before losing it again; various Spanish dialects have developed [h] as an allophone of /s/ or /x/ in most Spanish-speaking countries, and various dialects of Portuguese use it as an allophone of /ʀ/. 'H' is also used in many spelling systems in digraphs and trigraphs, such as 'ch', which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish, Galician, Old Portuguese and English, /ʃ/ in French and modern Portuguese, /k/ in Italian, French and English, /x/ in German, Czech, Polish, Slovak, one native word of English and a few loanwords into English, and /ç/ in German.

    For most English speakers, the name for the letter is pronounced as /eɪtʃ/ and spelled "aitch"[1] or occasionally "eitch". The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ and the associated spelling "haitch" is often considered to be h-adding and is considered nonstandard in England.[2] It is, however, a feature of Hiberno-English,[3] as well as scattered varieties of Edinburgh, England, and Welsh English,[4] and in Australia and Nova Scotia.

    The perceived name of the letter affects the choice of indefinite article before initialisms beginning with H: for example "an H-bomb" or "a H-bomb". The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ may be a hypercorrection formed by analogy with the names of the other letters of the alphabet, most of which include the sound they represent.[5]

    The haitch pronunciation of h has spread in English-speaking countries, being used by approximately 24% of native-born English speakers born since 1982,[6] and polls continue to show this pronunciation becoming more common among younger native speakers. Despite this increasing number, the pronunciation without the /h/ sound is still considered to be standard in English, although the pronunciation with /h/ is also attested as a legitimate variant.[2]

    Authorities disagree about the history of the letter's name. The Oxford English Dictionary says the original name of the letter was [ˈaha] in Latin; this became [ˈaka] in Vulgar Latin, passed into English via Old French [atʃ], and by Middle English was pronounced [aːtʃ]. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language derives it from French hache from Latin haca or hic. Anatoly Liberman suggests a conflation of two obsolete orderings of the alphabet, one with H immediately followed by K and the other without any K: reciting the former's ..., H, K, L,... as [...(h)a ka el ...] when reinterpreted for the latter ..., H, L,... would imply a pronunciation [(h)a ka] for H.[7]

    English
    In English, ⟨h⟩ occurs as a single-letter grapheme (being either silent or representing the voiceless glottal fricative (/h/) and in various digraphs, such as ⟨ch⟩ /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /k/, or /x/), ⟨gh⟩ (silent, /ɡ/, /k/, /p/, or /f/), ⟨ph⟩ (/f/), ⟨rh⟩ (/r/), ⟨sh⟩ (/ʃ/), ⟨th⟩ (/θ/ or /ð/), ⟨wh⟩ (/hw/[8]). The letter is silent in a syllable rime, as in ah, ohm, dahlia, cheetah, pooh-poohed, as well as in certain other words (mostly of French origin) such as hour, honest, herb (in American but not British English) and vehicle (in certain varieties of English). Initial /h/ is often not pronounced in the weak form of some function words including had, has, have, he, her, him, his, and in some varieties of English (including most regional dialects of England and Wales) it is often omitted in all words (see '⟨h⟩'-dropping). It was formerly common for an rather than a to be used as the indefinite article before a word beginning with /h/ in an unstressed syllable, as in "an historian", but use of a is now more usual (see English articles § Indefinite article). In English, The pronunciation of ⟨h⟩ as /h/ can be analyzed as a voiceless vowel. That is, when the phoneme /h/ precedes a vowel, /h/ may be realized as a voiceless version of the subsequent vowel. For example the word ⟨hit⟩, /hɪt/ is realized as [ɪ̥ɪt].[9] H is the eighth most frequently used letter in the English language (after S, N, I, O, A, T, and E), with a frequency of about 4.2% in words.[citation needed] When h is placed after certain other consonants, it modifies their pronunciation in various ways, e.g. for ch, gh, ph, sh and th.

    Other languages
    In the German language, the name of the letter is pronounced /haː/. Following a vowel, it often silently indicates that the vowel is long: In the word erhöhen ('heighten'), the second ⟨h⟩ is mute for most speakers outside of Switzerland. In 1901, a spelling reform eliminated the silent ⟨h⟩ in nearly all instances of ⟨th⟩ in native German words such as thun ('to do') or Thür ('door'). It has been left unchanged in words derived from Greek, such as Theater ('theater') and Thron ('throne'), which continue to be spelled with ⟨th⟩ even after the last German spelling reform.

    In Spanish and Portuguese, ⟨h⟩ ("hache" in Spanish, pronounced ['atʃe], or agá in Portuguese, pronounced [aˈɣa] or [ɐˈɡa]) is a silent letter with no pronunciation, as in hijo [ˈixo] ('son') and húngaro [ˈũɡaɾu] ('Hungarian'). The spelling reflects an earlier pronunciation of the sound /h/. It is sometimes pronounced with the value [h], in some regions of Andalusia, Extremadura, Canarias, Cantabria and the Americas in the beginning of some words. ⟨h⟩ also appears in the digraph ⟨ch⟩, which represents /tʃ/ in Spanish and northern Portugal, and /ʃ/ in oral traditions that merged both sounds (the latter originarily represented by ⟨x⟩ instead) e.g. in most of the Portuguese language and some Spanish-speaking places, prominently Chile, as well as ⟨nh⟩ /ɲ/ and ⟨lh⟩ /ʎ/ in Portuguese, whose spelling is inherited from Occitan.

    In French, the name of the letter is written as "ache" and pronounced /aʃ/. The French orthography classifies words that begin with this letter in two ways, one of which can affect the pronunciation, even though it is a silent letter either way. The H muet, or "mute" ⟨h⟩, is considered as though the letter were not there at all, so for example the singular definite article le or la, which is elided to l' before a vowel, elides before an H muet followed by a vowel. For example, le + hébergement becomes l'hébergement ('the accommodation'). The other kind of ⟨h⟩ is called h aspiré ("aspirated '⟨h⟩'", though it is not normally aspirated phonetically), and does not allow elision or liaison. For example in le homard ('the lobster') the article le remains unelided, and may be separated from the noun with a bit of a glottal stop. Most words that begin with an H muet come from Latin (honneur, homme) or from Greek through Latin (hécatombe), whereas most words beginning with an H aspiré come from Germanic (harpe, hareng) or non-Indo-European languages (harem, hamac, haricot); in some cases, an orthographic ⟨h⟩ was added to disambiguate the [v] and semivowel [ɥ] pronunciations before the introduction of the distinction between the letters ⟨v⟩ and ⟨u⟩: huit (from uit, ultimately from Latin octo), huître (from uistre, ultimately from Greek through Latin ostrea).

    In Italian, ⟨h⟩ has no phonological value. Its most important uses are in the digraphs 'ch' /k/ and 'gh' /ɡ/, as well as to differentiate the spellings of certain short words that are homophones, for example some present tense forms of the verb avere ('to have') (such as hanno, 'they have', vs. anno, 'year'), and in short interjections (oh, ehi).

    Some languages, including Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, and Finnish, use ⟨h⟩ as a breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ], often as an allophone of otherwise voiceless /h/ in a voiced environment.

    In Hungarian, the letter has five independent pronunciations, perhaps more than in any other language, with an additional three uses as a productive and non-productive member of a digraph. H may represent /h/ as in the name of the Székely town Hargita; intervocalically it represents /ɦ/ as in "tehéz"; it represents /x/ in the word "doh"; it represents /ç/ in "ihlet"; and it is silent in "Cseh". As part of a diphthong, it represents, in archaic spelling, /t͡ʃ/ with the letter C as in the name "Széchényi; it represents, again, with the letter C, /x/ in "pech" (which is pronounced [pɛx]); in certain environments it breaks palatalization of a consonant, as in the name "Horthy" which is pronounced [hɔrti] (without the intervening H, the name "Horty" would be pronounced [hɔrc]); and finally, it acts as a silent component of a diphthong, as in the name "Vargha", pronounced [vɒrgɒ].

    In Ukrainian and Belarusian, when written in the Latin alphabet, ⟨h⟩ is also commonly used for /ɦ/, which is otherwise written with the Cyrillic letter ⟨г⟩.

    In Irish, ⟨h⟩ is not considered an independent letter, except for a very few non-native words, however ⟨h⟩ placed after a consonant is known as a "séimhiú" and indicates lenition of that consonant; ⟨h⟩ began to replace the original form of a séimhiú, a dot placed above the consonant, after the introduction of typewriters.

    In most dialects of Polish, both ⟨h⟩ and the digraph ⟨ch⟩ always represent /x/.

    In Basque, during the 20th century it was not used in the orthography of the Basque dialects in Spain but it marked an aspiration in the North-Eastern dialects. During the standardization of Basque in the 1970s, the compromise was reached that h would be accepted if it were the first consonant in a syllable. Hence, herri ("people") and etorri ("to come") were accepted instead of erri (Biscayan) and ethorri (Souletin). Speakers could pronounce the h or not. For the dialects lacking the aspiration, this meant a complication added to the standardized spelling.

    Other systems
    As a phonetic symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), it is used mainly for the so-called aspirations (fricative or trills), and variations of the plain letter are used to represent two sounds: the lowercase form ⟨h⟩ represents the voiceless glottal fricative, and the small capital form ⟨ʜ⟩ represents the voiceless epiglottal fricative (or trill). With a bar, minuscule ⟨ħ⟩ is used for a voiceless pharyngeal fricative. Specific to the IPA, a hooked ⟨ɦ⟩ is used for a voiced glottal fricative, and a superscript ⟨ʰ⟩ is used to represent aspiration.

    Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet
    H with diacritics: Ĥ ĥ Ȟ ȟ Ħ ħ Ḩ ḩ Ⱨ ⱨ ẖ ẖ Ḥ ḥ Ḣ ḣ Ḧ ḧ Ḫ ḫ ꞕ
    IPA-specific symbols related to H: ʜ ꟸ ɦ ʰ ʱ ɥ ᶣ[10]
    ᴴ : Modifier letter H is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet[11]
    ₕ : Subscript small h was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[12]
    ʰ : Modifier letter small h is used in Indo-European studies[13]
    ʮ and ʯ : Turned H with fishhook and turned H with fishhook and tail are used in Sino-Tibetanist linguistics[14]
    Ƕ ƕ : Latin letter hwair, derived from a ligature of the digraph hv, and used to transliterate the Gothic letter 𐍈 (which represented the sound [hʷ])
    Ⱶ ⱶ : Claudian letters[15]
    Ꟶ ꟶ : Reversed half h used in Roman inscriptions from the Roman provinces of Gaul[16]
    Ancestors, siblings and descendants in other alphabets
    𐤇 : Semitic letter Heth, from which the following symbols derive
    Η η : Greek letter Eta, from which the following symbols derive
    𐌇 : Old Italic H, the ancestor of modern Latin H
    ᚺ, ᚻ : Runic letter haglaz, which is probably a descendant of Old Italic H
    Һ һ : Cyrillic letter Shha, which derives from Latin H
    𐌷 : Gothic letter haal
    Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations
    h : Planck constant
    ℏ : reduced Planck constant
    {\displaystyle \mathbb {H} }\mathbb {H} : Blackboard bold capital H used in quaternion notation"

    Amendment II - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    "The Spanish Trade Union Organization (OSE),1commonly known as the Vertical Union or simply as a Trade UnionOrganization, it was the only trade union power plant that existed in Spain between 1940 and 1977,during the period of the Franco dictatorship. For nearly forty years it became the only legal union to be authorized. All workers and employers, who became known as "producers" in Franco's terminology, were required by law to be affiliated with the Vertical Union.1The Trade Union Organization was established after the end of the CivilWar, while previous trade union organizations such as the CNT anarchist and the socialist UGT were outlawed and went underground. Nor was this an impediment to clandestine organisations such as the Workers' Commissions or the Workers' Union infiltrating it amendment one section one economic sanctions member all states shall cease the export of after Franco's death and the beginning of the Transition, Adolfo Suárez's government decided to dissolve the Vertical Union, which by then was greatly affected by the infiltration of Workers' Commissions and the Workers' Union. However, the former trade union structure remained and was converted into the Institutional Administration of Socio-Professional Services (ISSA), a body that took over the immense documentary fund and real estate assets held by the Vertical Trade Unions. After the start of the Civil War in July 1936, from the outset the authorities of the rebel zone decreed the illegalization of the main class trade union organizations, as was the case with the anarchist National Labour Confederation (CNT) and the socialist General Union of Workers (UGT). In 1938 the Franco authorities promulgated the so-called Fuero del Trabajo,a legislative rule that, in imitation of the Italian fascist model and its Lavoro Charter,laid the foundation for state intervention in the world of work. It was from this legislation that the foundations were laid for the creation of a new trade union organization based on the corporatist model of a vertical union that grouped workers and employers into the same organization. The law of 30 January 1938 also created the Ministry of Trade Union Organization and Action, which from then on became the state agency responsible for labour and trade union issues.2​ An antecedent of the Trade Union Organization was the National-Sindicalist Workers' Central (CONS) founded in 1935 by Falange Española de las JONS,although for much of its existence CONS had a very limited influence. After 1938, the OSE was the result of the merger of workers' organizations close to the Phalanx and employers' organizations, in order to organize workers, technicians and employers amendment two section one economic sanctions membe all states shall cease the export trade of within a single vertical structure, ideal similar to the fascist to achieve the industrial relations of a corporate state, in the face of the national syndicalist ideal of the Phalange that in theory seemed to be wanted to follow (and which was never applied). In it, all workers, called "producers", and their employers had the right to choose their representatives through elections. Although the Vertical Union began to have some activity from 1940, as a result of the laws passed that same year by the dictatorship, paradoxically it did not hold its first congress until March 1961.In the context of the first stage of the Franco regime (1939-1959), on 26 January 1940 the so-called Trade Union Unity Act was enacted which established that employers and workers would be integrated into a single trade union organization under the command of FET and JONS. The preamble to the law read: "Three are the principles that inspire the national organizationindicalist envisaged in the Labour Fuero, a faithful reflection of the political organization of the new State, namely unity, totality and hierarchy".3The new trade union organization would in turn be organized into branches of production, each of which would be called the National Union. On the other hand, geographical locations were called «National-Unionist Centrals». All of this was the "National-Trade Unionist Organization" envisaged by the Labour Fuero of 1938, although from the 1940s it began to be simply called the Trade Union Organization. From the outset it became clear that the state controlled the entire system. On 6 December 1940, with the enactment of the Law on The Basis of the Trade Union Organization, the forced affiliation of all workers and employers ("producers") in the trade union structure of the Regime under the principles of "verticality, unity, totality and hierarchy" became implicit.4As one of the leaders of the Trade Unions later stated, "vertical trade unions are not instruments of classist struggle. On the contrary, they place as the first of their aspirations, not the abolition of classes, which must always exist, but their harmonization and cooperation under the sign of the general interest of the Fatherland".4​ One of the possible areas of trade union action, labour conflict, was closed as the Labour Force directly attributed to the State the competences in this area, for which Labour Magistratures were created that they had to resolve in the event of a failure of trade union conciliation.2​ Gerardo Salvador Merino was one of the first hierarchies of the Trade Union Organization, at a time when trade unions were in the training phase. Salvador Merino was in favour of autonomy for the Trade Unions with respect to the General Secretariat of the "Movement" and the Franco apparatus, and hoped to be able to create a trade unionism that would constitute as a fundamental part of the regime.5In addition, Gerardo Salvador maintained a manifest German-phile stance and was a supporter of the model inspired by the German Labour Front. However, these political stances generated a large number of enemies within the Franco apparatus and in September 1941 he was relieved, defended by maneuvers in the shadow of his rivals. One of the reasons for his dismissal had been the pact he had signed on 21 August with the leader of the German Labour Front, Robert Ley,to send 100,000 workers to Germany, although the agreement would later be renegotiating and workers reduced to 15,000.6​Manuel Valdés Larrañaga, an old shirt faithful to Franco, became the new strongman of the unions. Valdés carried out a reorganization of the internal structure of the trade unions, while imbuing them with a more conservative and religious character.7As a result of the new winds blowing, the until then rowdy unions became totally docile with power.8Theoretically, within the Trade Union, workers and employers were supposed to be in a similar situation, although strikes were prohibited and on many occasions conflicts with employers' management often ended with mass layoffs. This situation took place especially during the early years of the dictatorship, especially during the 1940s and 1950s.9The figure of the employer was reinforced by Franco's legislation and, in fact, workers were supposed to owe him full loyalty, assistance and protection to employers.9​During the dictatorship, due to the corporatist system, the Unions sent several councillors to the Spanish Courts on behalf of the Trade Union Organization, but would later also send representatives ("procurators") to the National Council of the Movement and the Council of the Kingdom.10An election system for trade union links has been established from the outset, but candidates had to be affiliated with FET and JONS and were subject to strict control by the authorities. On the other hand, the entire electoral process was fiercely controlled from trade union headquarters. At this time women were totally excluded from the world of work and there was also no unemployment benefit system.The arrival of the 1960s marked the beginning of some openness within the SSO. Trade union elections have been held since 1944 to elect trade union representatives and delegates, and since 1954 it has ceased to be necessary to hold a FET and JONS card in order to participate in trade union elections.11It was not until after 1958, after the adoption of the Labour Conventions Act, which increased the interest and participation of workers in trade union representative elections. This was joined by a certain opening of the trade union apparatus in electoral processes, with less obstructionism of the regime towards unofficial candidacies. From the unionist apparatus there was even an attempt to attract former anarcho-syndicalist leaders into his bosom.12One of the architects of this timid opening was the trade union adviser José Solís Ruiz,who thus sought approval from the International Labour Organization (ILO). However, the National Information and Research Delegation had carte blanche to investigate the past of candidates for trade union elections and to oversee the electoral process itself.13​ At that time, in the early 1960s, the then clandestine Communist Party of Spain (PCE) decided to implement a policy of infiltration into vertical trade unions, in theory, to achieve practical increases for workers' conditions. In reality, it was about taking advantage of the regime's structures to lead to its fall from within. From this came the so-called Workers' Commissions (CC.OO.), with prominent figures such as Marcelino Camacho. On the contrary, other clandestine trade unions such as UGT or CNT opposed this policy of infiltration, although in the case of other organizations such as the Christian-inspired Workers' Union (USO), they did support and participate in this policy of infiltration.These aperturistic measures failed to get the ILO to give its go-ahead, and to top it all off they ended up encountering the front opposition of the technocratic officials of the Franco administration. Although the Phalangist bureaucracy saw at the opening a possibility of expanding its bases among the workers, the experiment was a failure and by 1967-1968 it could be terminated.14In this context, Solís had no problem supporting the repression of Workers' Commissions during the state of emergency decreed in 1968.12This situation was maintained even after the adoption of the Trade Union Act of 1971, adopted 17 February of that year, which did not bring about any innovation within the Vertical Trade Unions and which for practical purposes constituted little more than a mere set of regulatory and/or administrative regulations.12On the contrary, trade union activity became dependent on the Ministry of Trade Union Relations. Despite the timid reforms undertaken by José Solís, the OSE never came to the approval of the International Labour Organization, and although the union maintained a time of détente with the ILO during the 1960s, this ended in 1969 after the international body published a report very critical of the employment and trade union situation in Spain that same year.12​During the last years of the Franco dictatorship the trade union organization lost much of its previous strength, while illegal trade unions (especially CC.OO. and USO) became increasingly strong. In fact, after Franco died and until the abolition of the SSO, most employers preferred to agree on agreements and business pacts with the representation of the clandestine trade union organizations than with the representatives of the SSO. Transition and After Franco's death, during the first months of 1976, opposition union forces undertook a major campaign of mobilizations and strikes totalling 17,731 strikes.15The extraordinary increase in labour conflict was due in particular to the 1973Oil Crisis, the effects of which would be felt over the next few years on the Spanish economy and society. There was also strong pressure from workers who openly demanded free and democratic trade union representation. With illegal trade union organizations become the main player in the labor struggle, the existence of vertical trade unions was further questioned. The political reform undertaken by government president Adolfo Suarez included the adoption of freedom of association: this in practice meant the death of Franco's Unions. Paradoxically, Adolfo Suarez had been Minister-Secretary-General of the Movement until his new appointment. On October 8, 1976, the Suarez government approved the creation of the Institutional Administration of Socioprofessional Services (ISSA), an autonomous body dependent on the presidency of the government in which the trade union structure was integrated.16The ISSA took over the ownership and management of trade union real estate and all its archives. On 1 April 1977, the right to trade union association was finally recognized, and a Royal Decree of 2 June of that same year extinguished compulsory trade union membership.17Shortly after the dissolution, many of the former employers who had been integrated into vertical trade unions became part of the Spanish Confederation of Business Organizations (CEOE).18A Royal Decree of 6 December declared the structures of the Vertical Union extinct.19The Law on the Transfer of Assets of the Accumulated Trade Union Heritage, aims to solve two problems: the ownership of the goods and rights from the old Trade Union Organization and the other Trade Union Entities prior to the new constitutional system and the seizure of the assets of the Trade Union Organizations as a result of the Spanish civil war. A former director of the Vertical Unions, Juan García Carrés,would later stand out for his partition in the failed coup d'etre of February 23, 1981.With the enactment of the Trade Union Classification Act on 23 June 1941, the trade union organization was structured, resulting in 24 national trade unions being created.20Subsequently, the number of trade unions increased to 26.21In 1941 it was organized as well:National Water, Gas and Electricity UnionNational Sugar UnionNational Banking and Stock Exchange UnionNational Grain UnionNational Fuel UnionNational Clothing UnionNationalConstruction UnionNational Show UnionNational Union of Fruits and Horticultural ProductsNational Livestock UnionNational Hospitality and Similar UnionNational Chemical Industries UnionNational Wood and Cork UnionNational Metal UnionNational Olive UnionNational Trade Union on Paper, Press and Graphic ArtsNational Fisheries UnionNational Skin UnionNational Colonial Products UnionNational InsuranceUnionNational Textile UnionNational Transport and Communications UnionNational Vine, Beers and Beverages UnionNational Glass and Ceramics UnionSubsequently, the Textile and Clothing Unions would merge, creating the National Textile and Clothing Union.Throughout its existence, the Trade Union Organization had a large bureaucratic fabric and had a number of organizations through which it performed its "social" functions. Many of these were so-called "Trade Union Works", of an healthcare nature and focused on different areas: the"Trade UnionWork of the Home" ( promotion of housing for workers), the «Trade Union Work 18 de Julio» — health care – or the Work « Education andRest».22​to​The latter trade union work, "Education and Rest" (EyD), was a recreational organization that had been created by the Franco regime24​25EyD was the most important and successful of all the organizations available to Franco's vertical unions. Education and Rest offered workers a wide range of sociocultural activities (theatres, folk music, musical choirs...) as well as sporting events and physical education activities. There was a network of cultural centres for EyD members, which included holiday homes and sports centres.24​Vertical Trade Unions even came to have their own media communication bodies. In the journalistic field they had the newspaper Pueblo,founded in the mid-1940s and which eventually became one of the most important newspapers in Franco's Spain.26In the radio field was the Union Broadcasting Chain (CES), established in 1953, which constituted a group of different radio stations that belonged to the trade union structure.27In Spain during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, the trade union organization started from the local sphere and from the units or cells of work.SchemaNational Delegation of Trade Unions:National trade unions.National Brotherhood Board.National Trade Union Centres:Provincial Delegations of Trade Unions.Official Chamber of Agricultural Trade Union.Regional Trade Union Delegations:Artisan Guilds.Fishermen's Guilds.Business Unions.Mixed Entities.Union Brotherhoods of the Field.Local Trade Union Delegation.Artisan Guilds.Fishermen'sGuilds.Business Unions.Mixed Entities.Union Brotherhood of Labradors and RanchersCompanies - peasant families - fishing families - artisans - independent producers."

    Amendment III - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR who are concurrently citizens of the United Dominions of Icholasen can be extended at the discretion of any member-state. Visas to naturalized citizens of the UNSR may be extended, still under the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research, or as according to other purposes that a nation's culture or entrenched political institutions - that is, institutions which have taken up a cultural role and are considered by the population to be integral parts of a nation or member-state.

  • EU

    Amendment IV - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR who are concurrently citizens of the United Dominions of Icholasen can be extended at the discretion of any member-state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR who do not fall into this category may be extended, still under the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research.

    Amendment V - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR can be extended at the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research, or as according to other purposes that a nation's culture or entrenched political institutions - that is, institutions which have taken up a cultural role or are considered by the population to be integral parts of a nation or member-state.

    Amendment VI - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section II. Diplomatic Sanctions

    1. Except in the case of refugee applications, no visas to citizens of the UNSR shall be extended by any member state. Visas to citizens of the UNSR can be extended at the discretion of any member-state only for the purposes of asylum, refugee application, diplomacy, the visiting of family, journalism, education, and professional research.

    Amendment VII - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.

    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable.

    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace. It is recognized that the aforementioned individuals are possibly complicit, as members of the government of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics, in the committing of crimes against humanity. Due to the extenuating circumstances present currently, however, no specific course of action is recommended by the institutions of the European Union. If the decision is made to arrest and try these individuals, the Union recommends but does not mandate that as the alleged crimes against humanity took place in the territory recognized as being that of the United Dominions of Icholasen by this Union, a final ruling should be made by the institutions of the United Dominions of Icholasen.

    Amendment VIII - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.

    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable.

    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace. It is recognized that the aforementioned individuals are likely complicit, as officials of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics, in the committing of crimes against humanity, among other crimes directed at general groupings of individuals that the organization known as the UNSR opposes or finds a threat. Due to the extenuating circumstances present currently, however, no specific course of action is recommended by the institutions of the European Union. If the decision is made to arrest and try these individuals, the Union recommends that as the alleged crimes against humanity took place in the territory recognized as being that of the United Dominions of Icholasen by this Union, a final ruling should be made by the institutions of the United Dominions of Icholasen.

    Amendment IX - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo. all state officers of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics involved in its governance.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.

    Amendment X - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo. all state officers of the Union of Nicoleizian Socialist Republics involved in its governance.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable. Member-states with strong cultural reasons to avoid doing so are exempted.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.

    Amendment XI - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.

    Amendment XII - Proposed by Councillor Anja Mauer

    Section III. Individual Sanctions

    These sanctions apply to the following individuals: Michul Jirluchuz, Bernie Sanders, Jisuph Kaushuronu, Francoise Follin, Georgia Francis, any and all other ministers, presidents of individual Socialist Republics, any and all members of the UNSR politburo.
    All assets held by the aforementioned individuals in member state shall be seized as soon as practicable. It is recommended that assets of these individuals be seized as soon as practicable; however, this is to the discretion of the member-state. However, all assets that are clearly being used for militaristic or related purposes must be seized as soon as practicable. Member-states with strong cultural reasons to avoid doing so are exempted.
    If found in the territory of any member state, the aforementioned individuals are to be arrested and tried in the European Court of Justice on charges of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against peace.


    As I consider this amendments part of a filibuster, I vote AGAINST all amendments.

    Donald Tusk
    Deputy Speaker and Councillor for Spain


  • EU

    On behalf of United Duchies I vote AGAINST all ammendments
    James Mizrachi-Roscoe , European Councillour of United Duchies


  • ECoJ

    I vote FOR Amendments IV, V, VI, XI, and XII and ABSTAIN on Amendments VII, VIII, IX, and X.

    Tony Odhinazen
    EU Councilor, Ruthund


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